Bibliography to 2012

Books, articles and unpublished papers
about Charlotte Mary Yonge

Mainly on Yonge            Heroism and masculinity           Google Digitisation results

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Addleshaw, S.
“The High Church Movement in Victorian Fiction: Charlotte M. Yonge.”
Church Quarterly Review 120 (April 1935): 54–73.

Adler, Catherine Sinnard
English Novels Of 1865
Unpublished thesis (Ph. D.) – Indiana University, 1981

Novels by Emma Newby, Charlotte Yonge, Dinah Craik, Frederick Robinson, Annie Cudlip, Frances Lean, Rhoda Broughton, Edmund Yates and Mrs. Hoey are examined, along with Gaskell's Wives and Daughters, Trollope's Can You Forgive Her?, The Belton Estate and Miss Mackenzie and Margaret Oliphant's Miss Marjori-banks.

Alston, Ann
‘“Man about the House”’ Constructions of Masculinity in Charlotte Yonge’s The Daisy Chain and Anne Fine’s Madame Doubtfire
Unpublished paper presented for the International Research Society for Children’s Literature (IRSCL), Trinity College, Dublin. August 2005.

A. J. H.
"Charlotte M. Yonge's 'The Daisy Chain.' "
Notes and Queries CXCV (December 1950)

This piece seems to be a reply to a Piece by "G.N.S.H" published in November 1950. Click here to see the reference.

Anolik, Ruth Bienstock
"Gothic Murder: Containment of Horror in Charlotte Yonge’s
Chantry House"
originally presented as a paper called "Charlotte Yonge's Gothic Murder" at the IGA Conference 2001
Gothic Cults and Gothic Cultures.

Click here to see the abstract and full text of this paper (available on our Chantry House page)

Archer, Margaret
'Charlotte Yonge (1823-1901): Novelist of the Oxford Movement',
Review article, Victorian Periodicals Review, 27:4, 1994, pp 362-365.

Avery, Gillian
Village Children
Edited and with an introduction by Gillian Avery, (London: Victor Gollancz, 1967)

Stories in this book include : A patchwork fever -- Left out -- Wolf -- Bully Brindle -- Quack, quack -- Leonard, the Lion-heart.

Gillian Avery, well known for her stories of Victorian children (among them 'The Warden's Niece', 'The Elephant War'), provides an introduction to a selection of Yonge's tales of the children of Langley village.

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Bailey, Sarah
“Charlotte Mary Yonge.”
Cornhill Magazine 150 (August 1934): 188–98.

Banerjee, Jacqueline
Through the northern gate. Childhood and growing up in British fiction 1719-1901.
Studies in nineteenth-century British literature, 6. 
(New York: Peter Lang, 1996)
ISBN 0-8204-3010-2

Barker, Alisha M.
"From nature to virtue : moral formation and community in novels by Charlotte Yonge and Elizabeth Gaskell."
M.A. thesis, Baylor University. Dept. of English, 2009

Details of this document are available here.

From the author's summary:
This thesis explores how novels by Charlotte Yonge and Elizabeth Gaskell contest popular Victorian assumptions that moral influence stems from maternal nature. By offering virtue as the true source of moral influence, these authors also challenge Victorian ideas about who should be involved in the moral formation of the young. In this thesis, I first examine how these authors' portrayals of bad mothers demonstrate their belief that maternal instinct is distinct from a woman's ability to be a positive moral influence on her children. Next, I consider how Yonge's and Gaskell's frequent use of virtuous female mentors demonstrates their belief that moral formation is both a communal activity and social duty. Finally, I explore how understanding the virtue that enables moral influence as domestic rather than feminine leads Yonge and Gaskell to portray fathers and male mentors who play a significant role in the moral formation of young people.

Bass, Cecilia
"An examination of narrative approaches in eight novels by Charlotte Mary Yonge"
Dissertation (1993)

Bass, Cecilia
‘Random choice or character delineation: family Christian names in The Daisy Chain’.
Newsletter of the Charlotte M. Yonge Fellowship (no. 7, Summer 1998), p. 5.

Report of a paper delivered by Dom Andrew Johnson to the summer meeting of the CMYF.

Battiscombe, Georgina
Charlotte Mary Yonge. The story of an uneventful life. 
(London: Constable, 1943)

With an introduction by E.M. Delafield.

Battiscombe, Georgina and Laski, Marghanita (eds.). 
A chaplet for Charlotte Yonge. 
(London: Cresset Press, 1965)

Bauer-Gatsos, Sheila Catherine
Reiteration as resistance : performativity in the novels of Charlotte Yonge, George Eliot, and Margaret Oliphant
Unpublished thesis (Ph. D.) – Lehigh University (2003)

This dissertation examines the multilayered (sometimes contradictory) readings that can exist within complex texts. Dr Bauer-Gatsos' current research is focused on Charlotte Mary Yonge’s family chronicles and Margaret Oliphant’s sensation novels.

Bemis, Virginia Thompson
“The Novels of Charlotte Yonge: A Critical Introduction.”
Unpublished dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: Dissertation Abstracts International 41 (June 1981): 5105A

Bemis, Virginia Thompson
"Reverent and Reserved: The Sacramental Theology of Charlotte M. Yonge"
in Women's Theology in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Transfiguring the Faith of Their Fathers
edited by Julie Melnyk
Garland, January 1998
ISBN 0-8153-2793-5

From the Publisher's introduction: This collection of original essays identifies and analyzes 19th-century women's theological thought in all its diversity, demonstrating the ways that women revised, subverted, or rejected elements of masculine theology in creating theologies of their own. While women's religion has been widely studied, this is the only collection of essays that examines 19th-century women's theology as such. A substantial introduction clarifies the relationships between religion and theology and discusses the barriers to women's participation in theological discourse as well as the ways women overcame or avoided these barriers. The essays analyze theological ideas in a variety of genres. The first group of essays discusses women's nonfiction prose, including women's devotional writings on the Apocalypse; devotional prose by Christina Rossetti and its similarities to the work of Hildegard von Bingen; periodical prose by Anna Jameson and Julia Wedgwood; and the letters of Harriet and Jemima Newman, sisters of John Henry Newman. Other essays examine the novel, presenting analysis of the theologies of novelists Emma Jane Worboise, Charlotte M. Yonge, and Mary Arnold Ward. Further essays discuss the theological ideas of two purity reformers, Josephine Butler and Ellice Hopkins, while the final essays move beyond Victorian Christianity to examine spiritualist and Buddhist theology by women

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Bennett, E. Arnold
Fame and fiction : an enquiry into certain popularities.
Grant Richards, London, 1901

The "average reader," and the recipe for popularity -- Miss Braddon -- Mr. J.M. Barrie -- Charlotte M. Yonge -- Miss Rhoda Broughton -- Madame Sarah Grand -- "The master Christian" -- Miss E.T. Fowler -- "Red pottage" -- A note on the revolution in journalism -- The fiction of popular magazines -- Mr. Silas Hocking -- The craze for historical fiction in America -- Mr. James Lane Allen -- "David Harum" -- Mr. George Gissing -- Ivan Turgenev -- Mr. George Moore.

Blakeway, Alys
"Charlotte Yonge and the City of Winchester"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 9 (2009), pp 4-11.

Bourrier, Karen
“The Spirit of a Man and the Limbs of a Cripple”: Sentimentality, Disability, and Masculinity in Charlotte Yonge’s The Heir of Redclyffe
in Victorian Review 35.2 (Fall 2009): Special Issue: Victorian Disability.

Briggs, Katherine Mary
Folklore in the Works of Charlotte Yonge.
(Occasional Papers of the K.B.Club, No. 1. Cambridge: Just Your Type, 1990)

With introduction and notes by Kathleen Tillotson.

Brownell, David Blair
The Domestic World Of Charlotte M. Yonge
Unpublished thesis (Ph. D.) – Harvard University (1973)

Brownell, David Blair
"The Two Worlds of Charlotte Yonge"
The Worlds of Victorian Fiction. Ed. Jerome H. Buckley.
Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard UP, 1975. 165-178.

You may be able to read this paper on Google Books. Click here to try ...

Buckingham, Minnie Susan
The influence of the Oxford movement on Charlotte Yonge
Unpublished MA Thesis 1933 University of Chicago.

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Budge, Gavin
"Performance Anxiety: sexuality, aestheticism and modernity in Charlotte M Yonge's The Pillars of the House"

Conference paper: no further details at the moment

Budge, Gavin
"Realism and Typology in Charlotte M Yonge"
in Victorian Literature and Culture 31:1, pp 193-223, 2003.

The following is from the History Online website:

Recent attempts at a critical recuperation of the fiction of Charlotte M. Yonge have largely sidestepped the issue of her work's commitment to a religious perspective. June Sturrock's brief 1995 monograph, “Heaven and Home”: Charlotte M. Yonge's Domestic Fiction and the Victorian Debate over Women, is focused on the way in which Yonge's Tractarian beliefs provided a framework within which a conservative feminist account of an independent social role for women could be articulated, but takes those beliefs themselves as givens. Catherine Sandbach-Dahlström's more substantial 1984 study, Be Good Sweet Maid: Charlotte Yonge's Domestic Fiction: A Study in Dogmatic Purpose and Fictional Form, whilst noting a relationship between apparent changes in Yonge's religious beliefs and differences in the form of her novels, is characterized by a formalist mode of interpretation which tends to bracket off the question of how Yonge presents religious belief in her novels from any wider context in Victorian religious thought.

Budge, Gavin
"Irritable and Mesmeric Women in the Novels of Charlotte M. Yonge: towards a non-secular definition of realism"
Paper given at Victorian Cultures In Conflict - BAVS Seventh Annual Conference 2006 at the The University Of Liverpool

Budge, Gavin
Charlotte M. Yonge. Religion, feminism and realism in the Victorian novel
Oxford: Peter Lang, 2007. £35 (paper).
ISBN 978 3 03911 339 2

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Carlisle, Janice
Common Scents: Comparative Encounters in High-Victorian Fiction.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004. ISBN: 0195165098.

One of the books discussed in detail is Yonge's The Clever Woman of the Family.

Click here to read an abstracts of this book and its chapters on the Oxford Scholarship Online website.

Carpenter, Mary Wilson
"The Victorian Pulpit: Spoken and Written Sermons in Nineteenth-Century Britain (review)"
Victorian Studies 43, Number 2, Winter 2001, pp. 305-306

(details and extract available here)

Carpenter, Mary Wilson
"Haunted Texts: Studies in Pre-Raphaelitism in Honour of William E. Fredeman (review)"
University of Toronto Quarterly, 74, Number 1, Winter 2004/2005, pp. 448-449

(details and extract available here)

Carpenter, Mary Wilson
"Disabling Men: Male Invalids and the Pathologizing of the Family in Charlotte M. Yonge’s The Heir of Redclyffe"
Paper scheduled for presentation at
The third annual conference of the North American Victorian Studies Association
to be held 30 September – 2 October 2005
at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville

Cavendish, Lady Frederick
The Secret of Miss Yonge's Influence
(A short atricle at the end of: Charlotte Mary Yonge. An appreciation by Ethel Romanes
Click link above to read this article)

See also Romanes, Ethel
Charlotte Mary Yonge. An appreciation

Cawthorn, Caroline

Soldier saints : the Christian hero in the novels of Charles Kingsley and Charlotte M. Yonge
Unpublished thesis (M. Phil.) – University of Oxford (2002)

Chapman, Raymond
Faith and revolt. Studies in the literary influence of the Oxford Movement. 
(London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1970)

Chen, Mia
" 'And There Was No Helping It': Disability and Social Reproduction in Charlotte Yonge’s The Daisy Chain"
Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies Issue 4.2 (Summer 2008)

The full text of this article is currently available - click here

Chen, Mia
" 'To face apparent discrepancies with revelation' : Examining the fossil record in Charlotte Yonge's The Trial"
Special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click here for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: Charlotte Yonge placed religious belief at the centre of her world view, yet this did not prevent her from engaging with nineteenth-century geological theories traditionally associated with crises of faith, namely the discovery that the earth pre-dates the existence of humans by millions of years and that forms of life long extinct once populated its surface.

Chew, Cynthia Mei-Li
"It's stupid being a girl!: the tomboy character in selected children's series fiction."
Unpublished PhD thesis, Murdoch University. (2008)

Click here for full details of this thesis, including the author's abstract
Click here to read this thesis (PDF)

Clare, Hilary
"Medical training: Mays, Wards and Brownlows"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 7 (2005), pp 10-19.

Clarke, Tayce Langley
An education in virtue : didacticism and audience in Elizabeth Gaskell's Ruth and Charlotte Yonge's the heir of Redclyffe

Unpublished thesis (M.A.) – College of William and Mary (1996)


Clements, Susannah
“Thorns in the Flesh: Sickness, Providence, and Religious Authority in Charlotte Yonge’s Clever Woman of the Family.”
Unpublished paper given at The Victorians Institute 2000 Conference: This Strange Disease of Modern Life’: Victorian Illness, Health and Medicine

Clements, Susannah
"Charlotte Yonge and the Dangers of Certainty, or How Croquet Can Kill You."
Unpublished paper given at
The Midwest Regional meeting of the Conference on Christianity and Literature
March 2004
(No further details available yet).

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Colby, Vineta
Yesterday's Woman: Domestic Realism in the English Novel
Princeton U P, 1974

Mrs. Gore, Maria Edgeworth, Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, Charlotte Yonge, Harriet Martineau.

Coleridge, Christabel
Charlotte Mary Yonge. Her life and letters. 
(London: Macmillan, 1903)

Includes genealogical tables and 12 plates.

Appendices contain : Letters from various friends; bibliography; family pedigrees; important dates in Yonge's life; specimen of many conversations recorded by Miss Yonge in her early days; imaginary biographies; questions on Miss Yonge's books; account of Yonge's funeral.

This book is available to read online and download from Cornell University Library

Colón, Susan E.
"Realism And Reserve: Charlotte Yonge And Tractarian Aesthetics"
Part of a special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: Reserve was absolutely central to the Tractarian theological and aesthetic programme, and Yonge's position as a leading practitioner of Tractarian aesthetics demands that we understand the relationship of reserve to her realism. Some critics have assumed that realism is simply incommensurate with reserve, while others have reduced reserve to its psychological dimension. However, while John Keble's and Isaac Williams' complex discussions of reserve are well understood, it is clear that realism has distinct value for reserve both theologically and aesthetically. Yonge cannily exploited realism's potential both to practise and preach reserve. This essay reads The Pillars of the House (1873), especially the scene of the cathedral choral festival, to explore the unique power of Yonge's realism to instruct readers in the doctrine of reserve without violating reserve in doing so.

Colón, Susan E.
"Realism and Parable in Charlotte Yonge's The Heir of Redclyffe"
Journal of Narrative Theory, Volume 40, Number 1, Winter 2010, pp. 29-52
E-ISSN: 1548-9248 Print ISSN: 1549-0815

The full text of this article is currently available - click here

Colón, Susan E.
Victorian Parables
ISBN 9781441146502
New York 2012

From the Publisher's website: The familiar stories of the good Samaritan, the prodigal son, and Lazarus and the rich man were part of the cultural currency in the nineteenth century, and Victorian authors drew upon the figures and plots of biblical parables for a variety of authoritative, interpretive, and subversive effects. However, scholars of parables in literature have often overlooked the 19th-century novel, assuming that realism bears no relation to the subversive, iconoclastic genre of parable. In this book Susan E. Colòn shows that authors such as Charles Dickens, Margaret Oliphant, and Charlotte Yonge appreciated the power of parables to deliver an ethical charge that was as unexpected as it was disruptive to conventional moral ideas. Against the common assumption that the genres of realism and parable are polar opposites, this study explores how Victorian novels, despite their length, verisimilitude, and multi-plot complexity, can become parables in ways that imitate, interpret, and challenge their biblical sources.

Chapter 3 is : "The Parable of Actual Life": Charlotte Yonge's The Heir of Redclyffe

Reviews are available on the Continuum Publisher's website

Conrad, Lois Victoria
Perish or Publish: Victorian Culture and Women's Subjectivity in the Autobiographies and Fiction of Margaret Oliphant and Charlotte Yonge (Women Writers)
Unpublished thesis (Ph.D), Tulane University, 1997.

Coulson, Victoria

"Tyntesfield House and Charlotte Mary Yonge"
Paper given at Text & Architecture -- An international Word & Image Conference
Paris 2003

Click here for a summary of this paper

Courtney, Julia
Charlotte Mary Yonge : a novelist and her readers
Thesis (Ph. D.) – University of London (1990)

Courtney, Julia
"The Barnacle: A manuscript magazine of the 1860s"
in The Girl’s Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo–American Girl 1830-1915
ed. Claudia Nelson and Lynne Vallone.
Arkansas and London, University of Georgia Press: 1994

Courtney, Julia
"Charlotte M Yonge and Sir Walter Scott"
Paper given at the Spring Meeting of the Charlotte Mary Yonge Fellowship, Edinburgh, 2003.

Courtney. Julia and Schultze, Clemence (editors)
Characters & Scenes: Studies in Charlotte M. Yonge
ISBN 978-0-9557096-0-9
UK 2008

Click here to see reviewer comments and order form for this book

Charlotte M. Yonge was a leading Victorian novelist and a best-seller in her own time. Her books now attract considerable academic interest and still continue to appeal to the general reader. This collection of essays by Yonge specialists and scholars is published by the Charlotte M. Yonge Fellowship.

  • Barbara Dennis: Charlotte Yonge, Novelist of the Oxford Movement
  • Amy de Gruchy: Continuity and Development in the Fiction of Charlotte Yonge
  • Wendy Forrester: Dynevor Terrace and The Heir of Redclyffe
  • Cecilia Bass: Charlotte Yonge and the Critics
  • Barbara J. Dunlap: Charlotte Yonge: Embodying the Domestic Fiction
  • June Sturrock: Women's Work, Money and the Everyday: The Novels of the 1870s
  • John Alves and Hilary Clare: The Genealogies of the Interlinked Families appearing in Charlotte Yonge's Novels set in her own Times
  • Maria Poggi Johnson: The Case for Anglicanism in Charlotte Yonge's Historical Fiction
  • Clemence Schultze: Charlotte Yonge and the Classics
  • Julia Courtney: Mother Goose's Brood: Some Followers of Charlotte Yonge and their Novels

The book concludes with a sermon preached shortly after her death at St Matthew's, Otterbourne by Canon Robert Moberly, and an extensive bibliography of works by and about Yonge. This collection of studies in Charlotte M. Yonge will therefore not only be welcomed by those who are already admirers of her books but will also introduce the life and work of this extraordinary Victorian writer to a much wider readership.

Click here to read a brief summary from the British Association for Victorian Studies.

Click here to read a review from the Church Times

Courtney, Julia
"Miss Fenimore meets Mr Gradgrind: or Hopes and Fears for these Hard Times: Oppositions of fact, fancy and faith in C.M. Yonge and Charles Dickens"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 9 (2009), pp 25-33.

Thesis summary from the nz.research org (Kiwi Research Information Service) website:

This thesis investigates the part played by the idea of illness in the mid-nineteenth- century construction of femininity and women's sexuality. I have investigated a variety of discourses – medical writing, the debate on prostitution, the conduct books of Sarah Ellis, and the novels of Elizabeth Gaskell, Mary Braddon, and Charlotte Yonge – with the hypothesis that, in the hierarchized opposition that defined gender in the mid-nineteenth century, femininity was constituted in terms of illness, and "to be a woman was to be ill". I have used the theoretical works of Michel Foucault to look at the way in which discourse transmits and produces power. In Part One, I show how the 'masculine' discourses of medical texts and the debate on prostitution produced an ideal of femininity which confined woman to the domestic sphere, and pathologized her sexuality by defining it in terms of reproduction. In these texts, in order to universalize the ideal of domestic womanhood, the differences of class are of less importance than those of gender. Conduct books by women, on the other hand, while constraining women to the domestic sphere, produce a construction of womanhood which is active rather than passive, healthy rather than ill. In Parts Two and Three, I have shown how novels by women engage with the ideal of domestic femininity, and the strategies these authors have used to redefine, appropriate, endorse, or subvert it. In each of these, illness appears in some form – madness, disease, invalidism, or "decline" – in relation to the feminine ideal and the construction of women's sexuality.

Click here to see this thesis (PDF document)

Many thanks to Rowan Gibbs for alterting us to this PDF.

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DaGue, Elizabeth
"Images of Work, Glimpses of Professionalism in Selected Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Novels"
in Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1,
National Women's Studies Association: Selected Conference Proceedings, 1979 (Spring, 1980), pp. 50-55

Davis, Marjorie T.
Charlotte M. Yonge's popular novel, The heir of Redclyffe.
Thesis (M. A.) – University of South Florida (1969)
Available in
USF Tampa USF Thesis and Dissertation Collection and
USF LIBRARY--Tampa Circulating Collection -- PR 5912 .H4 D3

De Gruchy, Lilian Amy
"The Monthly Packet" : a study of C.M. Yonge's editorial aims and practice
Thesis: (M. Phil.) – University of London (1986)
Holding Libraries: ULL

De Gruchy, Amy
"The Monthly Packet"
Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the Charlotte Mary Yonge Society Fellowship.

De Gruchy, Amy
"Could Ethel May teach?"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 7 (2005), pp 20-28.

De Gruchy, Amy
"Charlotte M. Yonge's historical novels: the influence of Scott"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 8 (2008), pp 21-29.

Dennis, Barbara
"The Two Voices of Charlotte Yonge."
The Durham University Journal, 65 (March, 1973): 181-88.

Dennis, Barbara
"The Victorian Crisis: A Contemporary View."
Durham University Journal.
December 1980; 73 (1): 27-36.

Dennis, Barbara
Charlotte Yonge (1823-1901) Novelist of the Oxford Movement. 
A Literature of Victorian Culture and Society. 

(Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992)
ISBN: 0-773495-44-4

The text below is from the publisher's website:


In her time Charlotte Yonge (whose publications from first to last span the precise years of Victoria's reign) was as popular as Dickens. Her novels reflect her close involvement with John Keble, inaugurator of the Movement, and record every stage and detail of the Movement throughout the century at parish level, and how it was received by the middle-classes in a rapidly-changing society. In the light of new biographical discoveries, published and unpublished letters, non-fiction material such as her articles in the Monthly Packet, and consequent re-reading of Charlotte Yonge's novels, this study reveals the pervasiveness of the Oxford Movement in society.


"Detailing the work of the Oxford Movement on Yonge's novels, this work is useful as an introduction to the too-often-ignored literary aspect of the Oxford Movement. Its extensive plot summaries are helpful for the person who wishes to do more research in this area, while the reader who knows little of the Oxford Movement will be guided by the informative footnotes that detail important events of the era, such as the Hampden controversy. . . . This biography offers a useful survey of the work of Charlotte Yonge and will be welcomed by those who seek an introduction to the literary aspect of the Oxford Movement." -- Victorian Studies

Dennis, Barbara
Introduction to Charlotte Yonge in The Heir of Redclyffe, pp. vii-xxv.
(Oxford University Press, World’s Classics - out of print in 2001)  
ISBN: 0-192831321

Dennis, Barbara
"Clever woman of the family – Charlotte Yonge and the higher education of women"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 7 (2005), pp 3-9.

Dennis, Barbara
Introduction to the The Daisy Chain
1988 Virago modern classics
ISBN 0860688798

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Dowker, Ann
"The Treatment of Disability in 19th and Early 20th Century Children's Literature"
Disability Studies Quarterly, Winter 2004, Volume 24, No. 1

(From the author's introductory paragraph)
The classics of nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century children's fiction contain many characters with disabilities ... : there are of course also many disabled characters in children's books that are currently less well-known and/or less available to children: books by such authors as Charlotte Yonge, Annie Keary, Harriet Martineau, Talbot Baines Reed and Dinah Mulock (Mrs. Craik).

Click here to view the full article from Disability Studies Quarterly

. Barbara
"Reading Charlotte M. Yonge into the novels of Barbara Pym" in
All This Reading: The Literary World of Barbara Pym
Ed. Frauke Elisabeth Lenckos and Ellen J. Miller
ISBN: 0838639569
Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press 2003

(From the publisher's website)
Lenckos and Miller divide these 19 essays on the brilliant British novelist Barbara Pym (1915-80) into two parts. After brief essay on Pym's Life, the first ten essays concern "the significance of reading" in her novels and address such topics as the importance of literature to her characters, the "position of the female reader in literature," the role of the library in the lives of Pym and of her characters, "the amused observation and mild sense of irony" in Some Tame Gazell, and her autobiographical metaphors of aging and dying in three novels. The remaining nine essays, on "the literary encounters and collaborations" in Pym's life and works, concern her relationship to her publisher; the comfort of her work offered John Bayley as his wife, Iris Murdoch, succumbed to Alzheimer's; her epistolary relationship to Philip Larkin; the effect of the novels of Charlotte M. Yonge on Pym's work. Pym writes of those whose lives would otherwise be unnoticed. These essays probe the subtleties, undercurrents, and connections in her work, both to other novels and to the reading public. As Hazel Holt, Pym's literary executor, observes, "once you've read the novels, she is with you forever."

Dunlap, Barbara
"Charlotte Yonge: Embodying the Domestic Fiction"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 6 (2003), pp 2-11.

Dunlap, Barbara
"On the track of Percy's The Crusaders"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 9 (2009), pp 12-19.

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Eliot, Simon
A Measure of Popularity: UK Public Library Holdings of Twenty-four Popular Authors, 1883-1912
(Oxford and Bristol, 1992), 47 pp. Price £2.00 (UK), £4.00 (overseas).

The twenty-four authors covered are Harrison Ainsworth, R.M. Ballantyne, Walter Besant, M.E. Braddon, William Black, R.D. Blackmore, Rhoda Broughton, Wilkie Collins, Marie Corelli, Charles Dickens, H. Rider Haggard, E. Bulwer Lytton, Margaret Oliphant, James Payn, G.W.M. Reynolds, Walter Scott, R.L. Stevenson, Anthony Trollope, Mark Twain, Jules Verne, Mrs. Humphry Ward, Mrs. Henry Wood, and Charlotte Yonge. The work is divided into three chapters (1883-92, 1893-1902, 1903-12) and surveys over eighty library catalogues from England and Scotland.

Engert, Jeremy F.
Yonge : pedigrees, arms, crests and mottoes / collated and laid out by J.F. Engert.
Eastleigh : "In the tracks of the LSWR (family history society)", 1996.
91 p : geneal tables ; 21 cm. Includes index. (Bodley)

Evans, Daniela
"Childhood Trauma and Attachment in Charlotte Yonge"
Paper given at Childhood in its Time: The Child in British Literature International Conference
Canterbury Christ Church University, UK (March 2009)

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Fasick, Laura
The Quandary of Influence: The Case of Mary Ward and Charlotte Yonge.
English literature in transition, 1880-1920. 37, no. 2, (1994): 141-154

Fessler, Audrey Ann
Intellectuality and female sexuality in the novels of Charlotte Yonge
Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan, Diss., 1995

No further details available.

Fessler, Audrey Ann
"Gender Norms and Social Reforms in The Clever Woman of the Family."
Unpublished paper given at the 2006 Victorians Institute Conference: Gender and Victorian Reform

Fessler, Audrey Ann
"Minding Charlotte Yonge and Her Intellectual Girls."
Unpublished paper given at the Victorians Institute 2008 Conference: Disrupting Victorian Studies: Inconvenient Facts, Shocking Discoveries, Surprising Events, Forgotten Voices, Unknown Writings, Mangled Texts

Fessler, Audrey Ann
"Feminist Social Reform and the Problems with Patriarchy in Charlotte Yonge’s The Clever Woman of the Family."
Gender and Victorian Reform. Ed. Anita Rose
Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008. 46-57.
ISBN13: 978-1-4438-0067-9.     ISBN : 1-4438-0067-8

Fiamengo, Janice
"Forms of Suffering in Charlotte Yonge's The Clever Woman of the Family."
The Victorian Review Volume 25, Number 2 (Winter 2000) pp. 80-105.

Foster, Shirley
“Unpublished Letters of C. M. Yonge.”
Notes and Queries 17 (1970): 339–41.

Foster, Shirley, and Simons, Judy
What Katy read : feminist re-readings of "classic" stories for girls.
London: Macmillan, 1995
Iowa City : University of Iowa Press, 1995
ISBN: 0877454930

Introduction -- Susan Warner: The wide, wide world -- Charlotte Yonge: The Daisy Chain -- Louisa May Alcott: Little Women -- Susan Coolidge: What Katy did -- E. Nesbit: The Railway Children -- L.M. Montgomery: Anne of Green Gables -- Frances Hodgson Burnett: The Secret Garden -- Angela Brazil: The Madcap of the School. Includes bibliographical references and index.

From the Publisher's Website:
What Katy Read focuses on a much neglected area of literary criticism: literature for girls. Written by women for children, such texts have been doubly marginalized by the critical establishment. Shirley Foster and Judy Simons use twentieth-century feminist critical practice to open up fresh perspectives on popular fiction for girls written between 1850 and 1920. The study analyses both American and British novels for girls which have acquired 'classic' status, from the domestic myth to the school story, and considers their scope and influence in providing role models for girl readers.

From Library Journal:
Intrigued that generations of women have read and relished the same juvenile books, scholars Foster and Simons re-examine eight classics of girls' fiction from the perspective of 20th-century feminist critics. Among the British and American titles they scrutinize, those most familiar to present-day U.S. readers include Little Women, The Secret Garden, What Katy Did, and Anne of Green Gables. The texts are analyzed with the aim of defining the genre (fiction written by women for children), explaining the sociohistorical context of the works, and discovering why and how the novels "spoke to their age and continue to speak to today's." This soundly researched study offers insightful and provocative views of literate women and the books they have written and read. Highly recommended for all literature collections.– Carol A. McAllister, Coll. of William & Mary Lib., Williamsburg, Virginia.

See a University of Iowa webpage for more on this book

Francis, Diana Pharaoh
"Models to the Universe": Victorian Hegemony and the Construction of Feminine Identity.
Dissertation, Ball State University, 1999

Click here for PDF of this dissertation

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Gere, Charlotte and Rudoe, Judy
Jewellery in the Age of Queen Victoria: a Mirror to the World
British Museum Press, 544 pp.
ISBN 9780714128191kj

From a review of this book by Giles Waterfield in The Art Newspaper issue 215, July-August 2010:

While aware of current critical analyses of the rise of consumerist culture in the 19th century, Gere and Rudoe interpret and discuss jewellery as far as possible through the eyes of contemporaries. Descriptions offered by designers and manufacturers in the developing field of mass marketing, exhibition catalogues, reactions in the press and from private individuals, the use of jewels in Victorian fiction (notably in the novels of Charlotte Yonge, where “a moral agenda for jewellery…becomes an overriding tendency”) and the rich evidence provided by a range of painted and photographic portraits, create a richly textured study of the role played by this (often deeply eccentric) aspect of material culture.

Click here for the full text of this review online.

Green, David Bonnell
"Two popular novelists of the ‘fifties and their publisher: letters from G. J. Whyte-Melville and Charlotte M. Yonge to John William Parker, Jr"
Notes and Queries, New Series, (X), 1963, pp. 450-454.

Charlotte Yonge's letters are now online and can be seached.
Click here to see Yonge's letters to Parker

Girton College, Cambridge
Personal Papers of Charlotte Yonge  
2 boxed of papers - for details follow the link above.

G. N. S. H.
"Charlotte M. Yonge's 'The Daisy Chain'."
Notes and Queries CXCV (November 1950)

This piece seems to be followed by a reply by A.J.H, published in November 1950. Click here to see the reference.

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Hale, Elizabeth
"Disability and the individual talent: Adolescent girlhood in The Pillars Of The House and What Katy Did."

Special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: This essay examines how Charlotte Yonge and Susan Coolidge suggest that temporary disability is a crucial stage in the development of talented teenage girls. During periods of enforced disability, Yonge's brilliant artist, Geraldine Underwood, in The Pillars of the House (1873), and Coolidge's word magician, Katy Carr, in What Katy Did (1872), gain self-mastery and mastery of their talent, and become the heart of the house. Disability thus symbolizes the struggle to come of age for intelligent and talented young women in books for young readers.


Hampshire Review (no author identified as yet - please click here to tell us if you have more details)
"Charlotte Yonge of Otterbourne."
Hampshire Review, 14, Winter 1952-53, pp 57-9


Hayter, Alethea
Charlotte Yonge  
(Writers and their Work Series). 
(Plymouth: Northcote House / British Council, 1996)
ISBN 0746307810

Cover of Alethea Hayter's edition of The Trial

Read Alison Shell's review of this book in the Review of the Charlotte Mary Yonge Fellowship.

Hayter, Alethea
Introduction to Charlotte M. Yonge, The Trial, pp. v-viii. 
(Stroud: Alan Sutton, 1996)

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Heath, Michelle Beissel
“The Uncroquetable Lawn”: Charlotte Yonge and Lewis Carroll Play at Mallets and Hoops.”
Romantic and Victorian Entertainments: Graduate Student Literature Conference. University of South Carolina. Columbia, SC. March 2007.

Heath, Michelle Beissel
“Redeeming ‘the Uncroquetable Lawn’: Charlotte Yonge, Flirtatious Hoops, and Family Time.”
British Women Writers Association (BWWA) annual conference. Iowa City. April 2009.

Hicks Beach, William, Mrs.
Amabel and Mary Verena; an epilogue.
(London: Faber and Faber, 1945)

Written as a sequel to Charlotte Mary Yonge's The Heir of Redclyffe

Hickey, Julia Anne
Childhood and the "rites of passage" in the novels of Charlotte Yonge and George MacDonald
M.A. thesis (1994)
University of Kent at Canturbury.
No further details available

Hill, Georgina O’Brien
see O’Brien Hill, Georgina


Hill, Marylu
“Charlotte Yonge.”
Nineteenth Century British Women Writers, 415-419.
Ed. Abigail Bloom.
Westport 2000.

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Hoff, Catharine Mary
Images of mid-Victorian women: the popular fiction of Yonge, Craik and Oliphant.
1981 252 pages.
Dissertation, Indiana Univ

No further details available

for Holmes, Martha Stoddard
see Stoddard Holmes, Martha


Hope Dodds, Madeleine
"Jane Austen and Charlotte M Yonge."
Notes and Queries (1948) 193, pp 476-8

(on common acquaintances: the Bigg Withers of Manydown and the Heathcotes of Hursley) - David Gilson/Hantsphere

Hu, Esther T.
“West Meets East: Charlotte Yonge, Missionaries, and China in the Victorian Literary Imagination.”
Unpublished paper given at British Women Writers Conference, April 2010

Hutton, R. H.
“Ethical and Dogmatic Fiction: Miss Yonge.”
National Review 12 (January 1861), 211-30.

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Index makers: Charlotte Yonge, 1823-1901.
The Indexer : journal of the Society of Indexers. 17, no. 3, (April 1991)
ISSN: 0019-4131

Innerd, Jane Anna

“An investigation into the effects of the Victorian notions of duty and obedience on the domestic novels of Charlotte Mary Yonge.”
Doctoral Thesis - University of Durham (1973)

Innes, Kathleen Elizabeth Royds

Hampshire pilgrimages; men and women who have sojourned in Hampshire: Jane Austen, Charlotte Mary Yonge, Florence Nightingale, Gilbert White, William Cobbett, Dr. Joseph Stevens [and] lovers of Test and Itchen.
(London: W. Sessions, 1948)

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Jay, Elisabeth
‘Charlotte Yonge’s “Gleanings" from the Rev. John Keble.’
Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship Journal 1997, pp.28-33

Jay, Elisabeth
"Charlotte Mary Yonge and Tractarian Aesthetics"
Victorian Poetry - Volume 44, Number 1, Spring 2006, pp. 43-59

Click here to read the opening paragraphs of this article

Johnson, Maria Poggi
A sober standard of feeling : the Christian moral life in John Keble and Charlotte Yonge.
Diss. Relig. Studies 1996

Ph. D Thesis – University of Virginia, 1996
208 leaves ; 29 cm
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 198-208)

"Next to a sound rule of faith, there is nothing of so much consequence as a sober standard of feeling in matters of practical religion; and it is the peculiar happiness of the Church of England to possess, in her authorized formularies, an ample and secure provision for both. But in times of much leisure and unbounded curiosity, when excitement of every kind is sought after with a morbid eagerness, this part of the merit of our Liturgy, is likely in some measure to be lost, on many even of its sincere admirers: the very tempers which most require such discipline, setting themselves, in general, most decidedly against it." Advertisement for Keble's "Christian Year" (1837)

Johnson, Maria Poggi 
"The King, the Priest and the Armorer: A Victorian Historical Fantasy of the Via Media."
CLIO, Vol. 28, 1999

Johnson, Maria Poggi 
"The Reason for What is Right: Practical Wisdom in John Keble and Charlotte Yonge"
In Literature and Theology 2006 20(4):379-393

Click here to inspect the first page of this article. You can also buy the article online.

Johnson, Maria Poggi 
"The slave and the stumbling block:Charlotte Yonge's portrayal of primitive Christianity in The Slaves of Sabinus."
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 8 (2008), pp 30-35.

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Jordan, Ellen
; Mitchell, Charlotte and Schinske
, Helen
'"A Handmaid to the Church": How John Keble Shaped the Work and Career of Charlotte M.Yonge, the "Novelist of the Oxford Movement"'
in Kirstie Blair (ed),
John Keble and His Contexts.
London: Anthem Press, 2004.
ISBN 1 84331 147 X

Jordan, Ellen
'Charlotte M. Yonge, Woman of Letters.'
Princeton University Library Chronicle. 65 (2003): 451-478.

Jordan, Ellen
'"I am too high church and too narrow";
Charlotte Yonge, Macmillan and the Sunday Library.'
Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship Journal. 6 (2003): 12-25.
ISSN: 14660938

Jordan, Ellen
"The Magazine For The Young: An Example From The World Of Small Sectarian Publications."
Paper delivered at Characters of the Press - Fortieth Annual Conference of the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals
Roehampton University, London , U.K. 4-5 July 2008.

From the Roehampton Conference abstract (downloads and opens a large PDF document)

The Magazine for the Young ... lasted from 1842 to 1875 and was initially directed at working-class children and adolescents. It was founded in 1842 by Elizabeth and Marianne Dyson, the wife and sister of a Hampshire clergymen, who were deeply involved in visiting the poor of their village and supervising the education of the parish’s children, and who also had ambitions to be writers of fiction.

Marianne had already published a number of small books for children, and the publisher of one of them, James Burns, of 17 Portman Street, London, undertook the production and distribution of the magazine. After a year they passed the editorship to Anne Mozley, a member of a publishing family whose imprint often appeared with that of Burns, and in 1844, Charlotte M. Yonge, a country neighbour of the Dysons whose first novel had been published jointly by Burns and Mozley, became a regular contributor. Both these women, though they maintained their connection with the Magazine for the Young to the end, later made names for themselves in a much wider sphere. ... Under Anne Mozley’s guidance the focus of the magazine narrowed to a younger age group, but broadened to include a wider class range, some of Charlotte Yonge’s contributions, Countess Kate and The Stokesley Secret for example, dealing with pre-adolescent children from the gentry and aristocracy. This paper will suggest that though the magazine preserved the moralistic tone and sectarian bias inherited from its founders, it was the expertise of these two later contributors that enabled it to avoid the sentimentality and weak piety so often characteristic of religious journals addressed to this audience, and so earned it Christabel Coleridge’s encomium.

Juckett, Elizabeth
“Cross-Gendering the Underwoods: Christian Subjection in Charlotte Yonge’s Pillars of the House"
in Antifeminism and the Victorian Novel - Rereading Nineteenth-Century Women Writers
Ed Tamara S. Wagner (2009)
ISBN: 9781604976076 

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Kenney, Susan McIlvaine
Preface to Charlotte M. Yonge's The Daisy Chain.
Garland Library of Children's Classics, 1975.

Kolshus, Thorgeir and Hovdhaugen, Even
"Reassessing the death of Bishop John Coleridge Patteson"
The Journal of Pacific History
Volume 45, Issue 3, 2010 pages 331-355.

Extensive discussion of the Patterson story, including the Yonge's Life of John Coleridge Patteson, Missionary Bishop the Melanesian Islands

Click here for Journal details, article abstract, full text of article, and author biographies

Kyriaki Hadjiafxendi, Patricia Zakreski
What Is a Woman to Do?: A Reader on Women, Work and Art, C. 1830-1890
Peter Lang, 2010 - 388 pages
ISBN 978-3-03911-116-9 pb.
ISBN 978-3-0353-0062-8 (eBook)

(from Google Books / the Publisher: This anthology contributes to a scholarly understanding of the aesthetics and economics of female artistic labour in the Victorian period. It maps out the evolution of the Woman Question in a number of areas, including the status and suitability of artistic professions for women, their engagement with new forms of work and their changing relationship to the public sphere. The wealth of material gathered here - from autobiographies, conduct manuals, diaries, periodical articles, prefaces and travelogues - traces the extensive debate on women's art, feminism and economics from the 1830s to the 1890s. Combining for the first time nineteenth-century criticism on literature and the visual arts, performance and craftsmanship, the selected material reveals the different ideological positions surrounding the transition of women from idleness to serious occupation. The distinctive primary sources explore the impact of artistic labour upon perceptions of feminine sensibility and aesthetics, the conflicting views of women towards the pragmatics of their own creative labour as they encompassed vocations, trades and professions, and the complex relationship between paid labour and female fame and notoriety.

Contains an introduction to and a section from "Money-Making", a chapter from Charlotte Yonge's Womankind (1877). The entire text of Womankind is available from this website's Her Works section (click link on the left).

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LaCom, Cindy
"It is more than Lame: Physical Disability in Charlotte Yonge's The Clever Woman of the Family and Anthony Trollope's Barchester Towers."
Paper given at The Discourse of Disability Conference / Congreso Otras Habilidades
3-6 March 1993 University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüe

Lang, Tig
"Miss Yonge and the supernatural."
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 8 (2008), pp 36-40.

Langbauer, Laurie
Novels of Everyday Life : The Series in English Fiction, 1850-1930
ISBN: 0801485010 - Cornell University Press 1999

Lawson, Kate
“Indian Mutiny/English Mutiny: National Governance in Charlotte Yonge’s The Clever Woman of the Family
Unpublished paper given at the 2010 Conference of ACCUTE (Association of Canadian College and University Teachers of English)

Lawson, Kate
“A Domestic Invasion: The Army in Charlotte Mary Yonge' s The Clever Woman of the Family
Unpublished paper given at the May 2008 Conference of ACCUTE (Association of Canadian College and University Teachers of English)

Lawson, Kate
“Becoming English: Travel and Tourism in Charlotte Yonge’s The Clever Woman of theFamily”
Unpublished paper given at the May 2008 Conference of ACCUTE (Association of Canadian College and University Teachers of English)
(Unconfirmed title ??? - compare entry immediately above)

Leavis, Q D
'Charlotte Yonge and 'Christian Discrimination'
in Collected Essays: The Novel of Religious Controversy
Cambridge University Press - ISBN: 052126703X

This third volume of Q. D. Leavis’s essays brings together pieces on hitherto unexplored aspects of Victorian literature. Most of these date from towards the end of her life and are previously unpublished. There are also essays and reviews which appeared originally in Scrutiny. Mrs Leavis focuses on the novel of religious controversy, the Anglo-Irish novel, women writers of the nineteenth-century, and certain aspects of George Eliot’s work. She examines these, and other relevant writing, from literary, historical and sociological points of view. The volume affords valuable new insights into nineteenth-century literature, and affirms Mrs Leavis’s standing as a pioneering and penetrating critic. (from the CUP website for this book)

Lenard, Mary (University of Wisconsin--Parkside)
"Unknown to History: Charlotte Yonge as a Historian, Novelist, and Writer for Children"
10th Annual 18th- and 19th-Century British Women Writers Conference
Evolving Domains of Knowledge and Representation
BWWC 2002

Losano, Antonia
"Disfigurements: Aesthetics and the Woman Painter in Charlotte Yonge and Dinah Craik Mulock"
Paper given at Reconfigurations: Visual Arts in the Literary Realm
Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century British Women Writers Conference,
UNC-Chapel Hill, March 26-29, 1998.

Losano, Antonia Jaqueline
The woman painter in Victorian literature
The Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 2008
ISBN-13: 978-0-8142-1081-9
ISBN-10: 0-8142-1081-3

Chapter 6: Disfigurement and Beauty in Dinah Craik and Charlotte Yonge

From a review of this chapter by Brenda R. Weber, Indiana University, in Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies Issue 5.1 (Spring 2009)

"I found the material examined in each of the chapters riveting, but I was particularly engaged with Losano’s discussion on women, beauty, and disfigurement in chapter 6, in which she takes up work by the noncanonical authors Craik and Yonge. As I have mentioned, Losano contends that male-generated critiques of the woman painter tended to re-center her body as the object of the critical gaze, thus shifting the gaze from the artwork to the artist. Throughout the book, Losano argues that female representations of women painters repositioned the erotic politics of the gaze by giving the painter-protagonist agency as a cultural producer and shaper of meaning. In chapter 6, Losano looks at two texts, Craik’s Olive (1850) and Yonge’s Pillars of the House (1873), in which the painter-protagonists’ bodies are deformed by a hunchback and crippled foot respectively, and so, Losano argues, refute the logic of eroticization that adheres to other representations of the woman painter. Craik’s and Yonge’s painters are trebly disfigured, Losano contends, “[f]irst as women, always already deformed; next as deformed physical bodies; then as artists in a culture that feared women’s imaginative capabilities” (183). Rather than using this triple dislocation as a means to disempower their heroines, Craik and Yonge put their characters’ “multiple disfigurements” to powerful discursive ends by allowing them to “escape normative gender roles and succeed in the world of art” (185). In these sorts of examples, Losano demonstrates how women writers were able to marshal the imaginative and discursive power of the woman painter to expand the status that might adhere to all female artistic producers."

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MacKinnon, Cleodie
"The trival round, the common task"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 7 (2005), pp 29-37.

Mare, Margaret and Percival, Alicia C.
Victorian best-seller. The World of Charlotte M. Yonge. 
(London: Harrap, 1947)

Masefield, Muriel Agnes Bussell
Women novelists from Fanny Burney to George Eliot

Contains a chapter on Charlotte Yonge and her novels, contributed by D. Blagg

Mason, Barbara
Charlotte Mary Yonge's View of the Proper Roles for Women in the Nineteenth Century
[Ph.D. dissertation]. 1984; 245 pp.

Mason, Emma
" 'Her Silence Speaks': Keble's Female Heirs"
in John Keble in Context
Ed: Kirstie Blair
Anthem Press 2004
ISBN 9781843311478

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Mason Emma, Knight Mark
Nineteenth-Century Religion and Literature: An Introduction
Oxford University Press, 2006
ISBN 0199277109

Click here to read a description of this book on the Oxford University Press website

Melnyk, Julie
"Location and Vocation in Yonge's The Daisy Chain."
Conference paper
Children's Literature Association, Springfield, MO, June 1994

Melnyk, Julie, ed.
Women's Theology in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Transfiguring the Faith of Their Fathers
Garland, January 1998
ISBN 0-8153-2793-5

Miller, Ignatius, O.S.U.
“Lewis and Charlotte Yonge.”
Bulletin of the New York C. S. Lewis Society 9, no. 3 (1978): 13–14.

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Mitchell, Charlotte; Jordan, Ellen; Schinske, Helen

NEW - a searchable website of Charlotte Yonge letters: click here to access

The Letters of Charlotte Mary Yonge (1823-1901) - Letters to 1849    and      Letters to 1859

Charlotte Yonge is one of the most influential and important of Victorian women writers; but study of her work has been handicapped by a tendency to patronise both her and her writing, by the vast number of her publications and by a shortage of information about her professional career. Scholars have had to depend mainly on the work of her first biographer, a loyal disciple, a situation which has long been felt to be unsatisfactory. We hope that this edition of her correspondence will provide for the first time a substantial foundation of facts for the study of her fiction, her historical and educational writing and her journalism, and help to illuminate her biography and also her significance in the cultural and religious history of the Victorian age.

The following is part of an abstract of a paper given by Charlotte Michell (click here for details)

For some years Ellen Jordan, Helen Schinske and I have been working on the large task of editing Yonge’s correspondence. The years to 1859 are currently available on the web and we hope that later decades will appear shortly. The letters of course include a great many references to the Monthly Packet; many are addressed to contributors, and some permit the identification of anonymous articles. At an early stage of the project Helen Schinske indexed the entire run of Packet, which has helped enormously with the dating of many letters. More recently I myself discovered and transcribed the whole of Yonge’s bank account from 1845 to 1901, which includes many payments to contributors, and again permits the identification of more contributors. This is of particular interest as the people who published in the Packet, although they include some well-known writers such as A.C.Swinburne, Lewis Carroll, Elizabeth Missing Sewell and Juliana Horatia Ewing, are often exceedingly obscure.

To read The Letters of Charlotte Yonge first click this line so see the SAS page – then click the View/Open link in the grey box near the bottom of the SAS page

Mitchell, Charlotte
" 'Novices and Ladies': the contributors to Charlotte Yonge's Monthly Packet 1851-83"
Paper delivered at Characters of the Press - Fortieth Annual Conference of the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals
Roehampton University, London , U.K. 4-5 July 2008

The Tractarian novelist Charlotte M. Yonge (1823-1901) was the editor for more than forty years of a periodical for young women and children which after long deliberation was given the cumbersome title of The Monthly Packet of Evening Readings for Younger Members of the English Church. The magazine underwent various vicissitudes during its existence. Its early target audience was perhaps younger and less exclusively female than was later the case, and, though far from avantgarde, its content also reflects the dramatic social and literary changes of the period. The magazine has never been particularly easy of access, and no indexes were published, so it has tended to be overlooked by most literary historians, except those directly concerned with Yonge’s own career. Now, however, it should become available to a wider audience, since it has been digitized in Gale Cengage’s 19th Century UK Periodicals series.

For some years Ellen Jordan, Helen Schinske and I have been working on the large task of editing Yonge’s correspondence. The years to 1859 are currently available on the web and we hope that later decades will appear shortly. The letters of course include a great many references to the Monthly Packet; many are addressed to contributors, and some permit the identification of anonymous articles. At an early stage of the project Helen Schinske indexed the entire run of Packet, which has helped enormously with the dating of many letters. More recently I myself discovered and transcribed the whole of Yonge’s bank account from 1845 to 1901, which includes many payments to contributors, and again permits the identification of more contributors. This is of particular interest as the people who published in the Packet, although they include some well-known writers such as A.C.Swinburne, Lewis Carroll, Elizabeth Missing Sewell and Juliana Horatia Ewing, are often exceedingly obscure.

In several cases we been able, using this new material, to trace the outlines of literary careers which do not show up in any way on the map of Victorian literary life: professional writers, many of them women, often non-metropolitan, whose whole work was anonymous or pseudonymous. In a self-deprecating letter to one of her publishers, Yonge herself referred to ‘my magazine team . . . chiefly consisting of novices and ladies; and not often a clergyman, except of the same way of thinking as myself’.

Mitchell, Charlotte
"Charlotte M. Yonge's bank account: a rich new source of information on her work and her life"
Special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click here for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: This article is a description of the surviving record of Yonge's account with Hoare's Bank. It suggests various ways in which the document sheds light on her writing, her thinking, her journalistic activities and her personal life. Evidence is cited about the various charitable and religious causes to which she gave money, the extent to which she devoted to such causes the whole of her income, and the amount of her income. The bank account, in conjunction with other newly discovered archival material, is used to give a clearer picture of the financial crisis suffered by Yonge's brother in the 1870s and its implications for her work. The question of how far the bank account permits the identification of anonymous contributions to The Monthly Packet is also discussed.

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Mitchell, Rosemary Ann
Charlotte M. Yonge: Reading, Writing, and Recycling Historical Fiction in the Nineteenth Century
Nineteenth-Century Contexts, Volume 31, Issue 1 March 2009 , pages 31 - 43

Mitchell, Rosemary Ann
'“The busy daughters of Clio”: women writers of history from 1820 to 1880',
Women's History Review (1998), 7: 1, 107 - 134

Click here to see this article (opens in a new window)

Mitchell, Rosemary Ann
"Faith and the French: Anglo-Catholicism in the Anglo-French historical novels of C.M. Yonge"
Charlotte Mary Yonge Fellowship Annual Meeting, November 2007 (keynote address)

Mitchell, Rosemary Ann
"‘Healing the Wounds of War: (A)mending the National Narrative in the Historical Works of Charlotte M. Yonge",
Women’s History Review, forthcoming 2010.

Moberly, Richard Campbell and Brock, H. Walter
Two sermons preached at S Matthews' Otterbourne
In Memoriam CMY March 31st 1901

Eastleigh, Hants, Eastleight Print Works. 1901 ?

Morning sermon, by R.C. Moberly – Evening sermon, by H.W. Brock

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Moberly, C. A. E.
Dulce Domum
(John Murray, 1911)

Suzi Norris writes: I am in posession of a book written by C A E Moberly, a sister of Emily and daughter of George Moberly. It is called Dulce Domum; first published by John Murray in 1911. It has in it many references of Charlotte Young although I haven't been able to find the Gosling Society mentioned. The Colridges and Crokats are mentioned. C A E Moberly was great aunt to my grandfather.


Moberly, Patricia J.
Charlotte Mary Yonge's Anglicanism: An Examination of John Keble's Influence on Her Literary Development and Achievement
[Ph.D. dissertation]. 1986;


Moore, James R (ed.)
"C.M. Yonge on Woman and the Church (1876)"
in Religion in Victorian Britain. Vol. III: Sources
Manchester University Press
ISBN: 0719029449

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Moore, Katharine
Victorian wives.
New York, St. Martin's Press

An angel in the house: The three Mrs. Coventry Patmores -- Married to a genius: Jane Carlyle -- A reluctant rebel: Caroline Norton -- Two breadwinners: Frances Trollope, Margaret Oliphant -- Married to an Archbishop: Mary Benson -- Married to a mystic: Louisa Macdonald -- Victorian wives in fiction: Dickens, Trollope, Thackeray, George Elion, Mrs. Gaskell, Charlotte Yonge, Meredith -- Across the Atlantic: The scene in New England; Harriet Beecher Stowe; Abba Alcott; Hannah Pearsall Smith.

Moruzi, Kristine
" 'Never read anything that can at all unsettle your religious faith': reading and writing in The Monthly Packet."
Special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: The Monthly Packet of Evening Readings for Younger Members of the English Church (1851-99) reveals the interest that Charlotte Yonge had in promoting and supporting girls as readers and writers. As the editor and as a major contributor, Yonge provided a variety of material for the magazine as part of a strategy for the development of girls' reading and writing habits in ways that were consistent with their High Anglican beliefs and that would never cause them to question their faith.

Moruzi, Kristine
“The Inferiority of Women”: Complicating Charlotte Yonge’s Perception of Girlhood in The Monthly Packet."
in Antifeminism and the Victorian Novel - Rereading Nineteenth-Century Women Writers
Ed Tamara S. Wagner (2009)
ISBN: 9781604976076


Moyse, Cordelia
A History of the Mothers' Union: Women, Anglicanism and Globalisation, 1876-2008
Boydell & Brewer 2009 - foreword by Archbishop of Canterbury and Jane Williams.

Musgrave, Elaine Kathleen
"Shadows of mutiny: Englishness, masculinity, and the 1857 Indian Uprising in the Victorian imagination."
Unpublished Ph D thesis, University of California, 2006.

The author discusses works by Charles Dickens, Wilkie Collins, Mary Elizabeth Braddon, Charlotte Mary Yonge and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Click here for full details and summary of this thesis.  


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Nelson, Claudia
"The Place of the Father in Charlotte M. Yonge’s The Daisy Chain"
Children’s Literature Association, Springfield, MO, June 1994

Nelson, Claudia
"Historical Present: Cultural Criticism in Charlotte M. Yonge’s
The Dove in the Eagle’s Nest"
South Central Modern Language Association, New Orleans, November 1998

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O’Brien Hill, Georgina
Thesis “Victorian Women Writers and the Magazine Story”

This thesis examines the female author/editor from 1850 to 1880 and focuses on the early work of George Eliot, Charlotte M. Yonge and Florence Marryat

Hill, Georgina Ellen O'Brien
The woman author-editor and the negotiation of professional identity, 1850-1880.
Unpublished Ph D thesis, University of Liverpool (University of Chester) December 2009

Here is part of the author's abstract. To see the rest of this abstract, click here:

This thesis examines the professional identities of three Victorian novelists, George Eliot (1819-1880), Charlotte Yonge (1823-1901) and Florence Marryat (1837-1899), all of whom worked as editors between 1850 and 1880. I explore the practices that these women adopted as journalists in order to survive, and indeed thrive, within a male-dominated literary marketplace, revealing a number of strategies in common as well as some important differences. I also consider how these author-editors represented the experience of the female artist-professional in their fiction, demonstrating that each woman figured the mid-Victorian ideal of domesticity as useful when seeking to negotiate a public identity within a challenging professional climate. Working in the press during a period which has been described as a ‘golden age of women’s journalism,’ these writers nevertheless faced numerous challenges. The purpose of this thesis is to examine why George Eliot, Charlotte Yonge and Florence Marryat found useful the particular practices they chose when editing and writing fiction within the context of this rapidly changing climate. By examining ...

O’Brien, Georgina
"Periodical Illustration and the Branding of the Woman Editor"
Paper delivered at Characters of the Press - Fortieth Annual Conference of the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals
Roehampton University, London , U.K. 4-5 July 2008

From the Roehampton Conference abstract (downloads and opens a large PDF document):
For this paper I consider the ‘character’ or ‘branding’ of two very different periodicals and their editor, Charlotte M. Yonge.

Although Yonge is perhaps best known for her hugely popular domestic novels, such as The Heir of Redclyffe (1853) and The Daisy Chain (1856), she was also the longest running editor of the Victorian period as she continued to edit the periodical she launched in 1851, The Monthly Packet, until 1882.

During the 1860s Yonge also set up and edited a sub-magazine of The Monthly Packet called The Barnacle. This smaller periodical was designed for and comprised of contributions from the members of Yonge’s ‘Gosling Society,’ a group of young, enthusiastic women who craved intellectual stimulation, as well as the riddles and competitions set by Yonge under the editorial persona of ‘Mother Goose.’ The incomplete collection of the magazines left to us today indicates that each member submitted a piece of writing for Yonge to edit and consider for inclusion in the bound volume which was then circulated around the Goslings, although Yonge’s editorial notes in the preface to each volume suggests a far wider circulation as the Goslings’ friends also began to contribute.

In this paper I argue that although The Barnacle was a small venture, begun with the intention of mentoring, educating and encouraging young fans of the editor, this periodical in fact afforded Yonge a unique opportunity to develop her editorial persona through illustrations, something not possible in The Monthly Packet which carried none. The larger periodical was strongly identified with the editor as its ‘house-style’ was characterised by Yonge’s frequent and distinctive editorial introductions, notes and messages to contributors. Yonge’s novels also often ran as the lead serial in the magazine before they were published in volume format. In The Barnacle, however, there was a distinct absence of the editor’s voice, often only present in a short preface to each volume, yet the lesser periodical was perhaps more strongly identified with its editor because of the distinctive and playful illustrations in which Yonge appeared as ‘Mother Goose’ to her brood of ‘Goslings.’ I argue, therefore, that whilst both The Monthly Packet and The Barnacle were characterised by Yonge’s editorial persona, the former represents the conservative aspect of Yonge’s professional identity, linked to her domestic novels and close association with the Oxford Movement; The Barnacle, by contrast, was characterised by Yonge’s more private, playful persona of ‘Mother Goose,’ exposing not only a fascinating and important insight into Yonge’s position as literary mentor to a group of aspiring young women writers but also exposing the more mischievous and light-hearted side to Yonge’s professional identity that has been somewhat lost under the editor’s conservative legacy.

O’Brien, Georgina
"Charlotte Yonge’s “Goosedom"
Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies, Issue 8.1 (Spring 2012)

This article may be read online at:

O'Mealy, Joseph H.
"Rewriting Trollope and Yonge: Mrs. Oliphant's Phoebe Junior and the Realism Wars"
Texas Studies in Literature and Language, Vol. 39, 2, 1997
(Extract available online here)

Onslow, Barbara
Women of the Press in Nineteenth-Century Britain
Palgrave/St. Martin's, 2000, ISBN 0-333-68378-1

Cover of Barbara Onslow's Women of the Press in Nineteenth Century Britain
Title of Barbara Onslow's Women of the Press in Nineteenth Century Britain

From the Publisher's website

To 19th-century writers the dynamic periodical press seemed both an influential medium and a means to pay the bills. A suprising number of women, despite limited education, parental opposition and the competitive nature of this developing profession sought to earn a living through journalism. Others saw the press as a valuable mechanism for educating the masses or a powerful channel for influencing public opinion. How did these women fare in Grub Street? Could they harness the power of the press? Who were the lady journalists? The women featured in this book range from Mary Russell Mitford to Flora Shaw to Margaret Gatty. Drawing on varied contemporary sources—memoirs, letters, magazines, journals, newspapers, and contemporary fiction about journalism—and her own database covering hundreds of women, Barbara Onslow assesses their contributions to journalism and how it affected the careers of writers as diverse as George Eliot, Elizabeth Gaskell, Anna Maria Hall, and Mary Braddon and Charlotte Yonge.

From The Critics – Booknews

Though early studies of the press have focused on the accomplishments of men, journalism was an avenue taken by many 19th-century women seeking to effect social and political change or simply make a living. This overview of women's involvement in English newspapers and periodicals draws on memoirs, letters, magazines, journals, newspapers, and contemporary fiction as well as Onslow's (U. of Reading) database covering hundreds of women. The work assesses their contribution to journalism and how it affected the careers of writers such as George Eliot, Elizabeth Gaskell, Anna Maria Hall, Mary Braddon, and Charlotte Yonge. An appendix provides brief biographies of 100 women mentioned in the text. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, Oregon (

Ormond, Leonee
A Writer in the House Beautiful: Leonee Ormond discusses a portrait of Charlotte M. Yonge at Tyntesfield, Somerset
Apollo Magazine Ltd. London, 2009,
Number 564; Supp, pages 38-41
ISSN 0003-6536


Osborn, J. Lee
Hursley and Otterbourne : The Homes Of Keble and Miss Yonge
(Winchester, Warren - no publication date known)

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Peck, Winifred F.
“The Ladies of the Oxford Movement.”
Cornhill Magazine 75 (1933): 3–14

Mary Augusta Ward; Elizabeth Wordsworth; Charlotte Mary Yonge; Charlotte Keble

Perkin, J. Russell
Theology and the Victorian Novel: Reclaiming the Victorian novel from presumed secularity

From the publisher's website:
Religious issues played a prominent role in Victorian England and had a profound influence on the culture of that period. In this book, J. Russell Perkin shows that even the apparently secular world of the realist novel is shaped by the theological debates of its time.

Beginning with a wide-ranging introduction that explains why a theological reading of Victorian fiction is both rewarding and timely, Perkin also addresses religion's return to prominence in the twenty-first century, confounding earlier predictions of its imminent demise. Chapters on William Thackeray, Charlotte Brontë, Charlotte Yonge, Anthony Trollope, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy are followed by a concluding discussion of Mary Ward and Walter Pater that relates Pater's Marius the Epicurean to postmodern theology and shows how it remains a religious classic for our own time.

Pickering, Emily
An Excellent Ideal: Charlotte Mary Yonge and the Redundant Woman Controversy in Mid-Victorian England
M.Phil. Thesis in Women's Studies (1996-97).
Centre for Gender and Women's Studies, Trinity College, Dublin

Powell, Diana
"Personal influence: Spiritual Empowerment in the presence of psychological uncertainty in The Heir of Redclyffe"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 9 (2009), pp 20-24.

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Rhodes, Royal W.
The lion and the cross : early Christianity in Victorian novels
Columbus : Ohio State University Press, c1995. 400 pp

(From publicity material)
In this comprehensive study interrelating religious thought, history, and the topical literature of the Victorian period, Rhodes examines more than 130 religious (and some non-religious) novels by major and minor writers set in early Christian centuries. These Early Church novels were employed by churchly writers of the Victorian period to treat contemporary religious questions under the disguise of antiquity and are thus important sources for the study of Church history.

As various parties within the Anglican Church, Dissenters, and Roman Catholics exploited this sub-genre of Victorian fiction for polemical purposes, churchmanship played a critical role in how the novelists re-created the first six hundred years of Christian history. Even secular writers like Wilkie Collins and Walter Pater used this format to address broad theological questions, such as the practice of celibacy, confession, ritualism, and the relation of Church and State. Other writers of Early Church novels discussed in this study include John Henry Newman, Charles Kingsley, Nicholas Cardinal Wiseman, Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Thomas Moore, John Mason Neale, Charlotte Yonge, Frederic Farrar, and Marie Corelli. Rhodes’s volume will be of great interest and significance to students and scholars of both Victorian literature and theological history.

Ridding, Caroline
'Charlotte Mary Yonge'
Girton Review
Easter Term 1934.

Roe, Dinah
" 'Beg, borrow or steal' : Conservative and Radical networking in The Monthly Packet and the English Women's Journal "
Paper given at Women's Literary Networks: 1580 to the present day (conference)
University of London March 2008

Romanes, Ethel
Charlotte Mary Yonge. An appreciation
(London and Oxford: Mowbray, 1908)

Click here for the full text of this book from Project Canterbury

This text includes The Secret of Miss Yonge's Influence by Lady Frederick Cavendish

Rudder, Debra Kay
Denying the father's claim: The daughter-condition in four Victorian women of letters
Ph.D. Thesis , Washington University (2004)

This thesis considers father-daughter relationships in the lives and works of four Victorian women: Charlotte Yonge, Elizabeth Gaskell, Charlotte Brontë, and George Eliot and seeks to show how these women experienced and (re)imagined the limited discourses available to them as daughters.

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Sandbach-Dahlström, Catherine
Be good sweet maid. Charlotte Yonge’s domestic fiction: a study in dogmatic purpose and fictional form
(Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis. Stockholm Studies in English, 59)
(Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1984)

Sanders, Valerie
" 'All-sufficient to one another'? Charlotte Yonge and the family chronicle"
ed Kay Boardman and Shirley Jones
Manchester: Manchester University Press (2004)

Popular Victorian Women Writers considers a diverse group of women writers within the Victorian literary marketplace. It looks at authors such as Ellen Wood, Mary Braddon, Rhoda Broughton and Charlotte Yonge as well as less well-known writers including Jessie Fothergill and Eliza Meteyard.

Each essay sets the individual author within her biographical and literary context and provides refreshing insights into her work. Together they bring the work of largely unknown authors and new perspectives on known authors to critical and public attention. Accessible and informative, the book is ideal for students of Victorian literature and culture as well as tutors and scholars of the period.

Sanders, Valerie (ed.)
Records of girlhood: an anthology of nineteenth-century women's childhoods
Includes CMY's autobiographical fragment relating to her childhood.
Nineteenth Century Series
(Ashgate Publishing.Aldershot, UK and Burlington, Vermont, USA, 2000)
ISBN 075460148X

Amelia Opie – Dorothea Herbert – Mary Martha Sherwood – Mary Somerville – Lady Caroline Lamb – Charlotte Elizabeth – Anna Jameson – Mary Howitt – Sara Coleridge – Harriet Martineau – Fanny Kemble – Elizabeth Sewell – Frances Power Cobbe – Charlotte M. Yonge – Annie Besant

Read a review of this book by Tanja Laden

Sanders, Valerie
Eve’s renegades. Victorian anti-feminist women novelists  
(Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996)
ISBN 0312160577

This study focuses on the work of four Victorian anti-feminist women writers -- Eliza Lynn Linton, Charlotte M. Yonge, Mrs. Humphrey Ward, and Margaret Oliphant -- examining their self-contradictory responses to the debate about women's role in family life and society. Individual chapters review women's anti-feminism from 1792 to 1850, and trace connections between attitudes in the 1890s and the "backlash" culture of the 1990s. Fresh readings of their best-known novels emphasize the inconsistencies of their masculine and feminine ideals. (taken from New Books in Nineteenth-Century British Studies, maintained by the English Johnson, Maria Poggi Department at the University of Southern California)

Sands-O'Connor, Karen

"Why Jo Didn't Marry Laurie: Louisa May Alcott and The Heir of Redclyffe"
ATQ (The American Transcendental Quarterly) 15 (2001) pp 23-41
Click here to read this article

Schaffer, Talia
“The Mysterious Magnum Bonum: Fighting to Read Charlotte Yonge”
Nineteenth-Century Literature Volume 55 ·Issue 2 · September 2000

Schaffer, Talia
"Taming the tropics: Charlotte Yonge Takes on Melanesia."
Victorian Studies 47.2 (2005) 204-214
[ Papers from the Second Annual Conference of the North American Victorian Studies Association ]

View the first page of this article here (JSTOR)

Schaffer, Talia
“Reorienting Family: Beyond Romantic Marriage”
Re-Orienting Victorian Studies Conference, organised by the Australasian Victorian Studies Association (AVSA)
hosted by the Centre of the Liberal Arts & Social Sciences (CLASS) and the Division of English at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore
25-27 June 2010 .

From an NTU press report:
Schaffer attempted to re-orient common perceptions of Victorian marriage. She discussed some of the major texts of Victorian fiction, from Mansfield Park to Jane Eyre and The Mill on the Floss, along with work by Charlotte Yonge and Margaret Oliphant, to show that familial marriage was a surprisingly robust category in the 19th century.

Schaffer, Talia
Review of "Characters and Scenes: Studies in Charlotte M. Yonge"
Women's Writing, Volume 16 Issue 2 (2009) 359–361

Schaub, Melissa
“‘Worthy Ambition’: Religion and Domesticity in The Daisy Chain.”
Studies in the Novel 39.1 (Spring 2007): 65-83.

Click here to read the first page or two of this article online.

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Schultze, Clemence Elizabeth
“Manliness and the myth of Hercules in Charlotte M. Yonge’s My Young Alcides,”
International Journal of the Classical Tradition (IJCT) 5 (1998–1999) 383-414.

This summary is taken from the Journal's website:

Charlotte Yonge’s novel My Young Alcides (1875) transposes the myth of Hercules into a setting of English country town life, c. 1858. The story of the spiritual development of a very masculine hero is recounted through characters and incidents which closely parallel those of the myth. Two-level reading both identifies the mythical referent, and interprets it in terms of the Christian struggle. Though Yonge did not regard the book as an allegory, it incorporates allegorising elements into the realistic novel. There are many similarities with The Heir of Redclyffe (1853): in both works, use of a literary or mythical paradigm highlights crucial episodes while maintaining the Tractarian attitude of reserve towards religious experience; heroic and chivalrous Christian virtue is manifested in every-day life; and a dominant contemporary conception of manliness is renegotiated by showing male heroes displaying virtues usually perceived as feminine and identifying these as universally and appropriately Christian.

Schumaker, Jeanette
"Domestic Gothics: Charlotte Yonge’s The Heir of Redclyffe and Edith Wharton’s ‘The Old Maid.’"
MAWA Review (Middle-Atlantic Writers Association Review) 14.1 (1999): 43-54.

Schumaker, Jeanette
"Illness as a Crucible in Novels by George Meredith, Frances Trollope, and Charlotte Yonge"
in Nassau Review 8.2 (2001): 16-26.


Schuster, Bonnie H.
"Bio-bibliography of Charlotte Mary Yonge, 1823-1901".
Unpublished Graduate Paper for MA in Library Science (1967), University of Minnesota.
University of Minnesota Libraries.

Early and commendable attempt to cite all editions of all published works for C.M. Yonge up to the date of compilation (1966) –all using old technology!

Bonnie has very kindly presented a printed and bound copy of her thesis to the Fellowship. This gift was "officially" handed over at the April 2003 meeting of CMYF in Edinburgh.

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Shakinovsky, Lynn
"Domestic History and the Idea of the Nation in Charlotte Yonge’s The Heir of Redclyffe"
in Antifeminism and the Victorian Novel - Rereading Nineteenth-Century Women Writers
Ed Tamara S. Wagner (2009)
ISBN: 9781604976076

Simmons, Clare A.
Introduction to Charlotte Yonge's
The Clever Woman of the Family
Broadview Press 2001

Click here to see the publisher's information sheet including contents list and appendices.

You can find a review of Clare Simmons' edition by Mary Summers here
(Women's Writing, Volume 10, No 1 2003 - page 215).

Simmons, Clare A.
"Narrative as Anti-Progress: Charlotte Mary Yonge and the borders of historiography"
Conference paper given at
Studies in Medievalism
The 18th International Conference on Medievalism, October 17-18, 2003, Saint Louis University, Center for Medieval Studies

Stanley, Isabel
"What Barbara Pym Read: Less-Known and Less-Regarded Works"
Paper presented at the Meeting of the Barbara Pym Society in North America
Harvard University, March 24-25, 2007

This article is currently available here: its location is likely to change

From the author's introduction to her paper:
Critics and interviewers of Barbara Pym always cite her love of authors such as Jane Austen and Anthony Trollope, writers who certainly loomed large in her reading and affection. Less well known are a number of other authors and works which were important to her formation as a writer. Some authors such as the Seventeenth Century’s Anthony a Wood and the eighteenth’s James Woodeforde must be termed “obscure” or even "quaint". Other writers which I shall discuss are well known but Pym preferred their less well known works to their more popular ones. Charlotte Bronte’s novel Shirley is such a work and was a favorite of Barbara Pym’s from her own girlhood. More puzzling is her attachment to Charlotte Mary Yonge’s The Daisy Chain, Elizabeth von Arnim’s The Pastor’s Wife and Vera Brittain’s An Honourable Estate ... What I hope to show is that great writers such as Pym (and perhaps all of us as readers) are influenced and shaped by reading inferior as well as superior books, and obscure as well as well-known sources.

Stoddard Holmes, Martha
"Victorian Fictions of Interdependency: Gaskell, Craik, and Yonge"
Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2007, 29-41

Abstract (from the publisher's website)
Victorian fiction by Elizabeth Gaskell, Dinah Mulock Craik, and especially Charlotte Yonge offers alternate ways to imagine dependency and disability. Basic fictional elements such as plotting and genre produce a message of interdependency as both a social norm and a social good, catalyzing a range of relationships including, but not limited to, marriage. Later critics' dismissal of all three writers' Christian ideologies of self-sacrifice may reveal our pervasive devaluation of the interdependency that, like disability, is a universal experience.

Click here to view further details of this paper. You can also download it from the publisher's website (PDF)

(Also mentions of Yonge in)
Fictions of Affliction: Physical Disability in Victorian Culture

ISBN: 0472098411
University of Michigan Press (2003)

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Sturrock, June
"A Personal View of Women's Education, 1838–1900: Charlotte Yonge's Novels"
Victorians Institute Journal
7 (1978) 7–18.

Sturrock, June
Something to Do: Charlotte Yonge, Tractarianism, and the Question of Women's Work."
Victorian Review 18 (1992), 28–48.

Sturrock, June
“Heaven and home”: Charlotte M. Yonge’s domestic fiction and the Victorian debate over women
(English Literary Studies Monograph Series, no. 66).
(Victoria, B.C.: University of Victoria, 1995)

Shows the cover of Heaven and Home by June Sturrock

Sturrock, June

"Sequels, Series, and Sensation Novels: Charlotte Yonge and the Popular Fiction Market of the 1850s and 1860s."
Part II: Reflections on the Sequel.
ed. Paul Budra and Betty A Schellenberg.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998. 102–117.

Read a review of this volume by Carrie Hintz in the University of Toronto Quarterly

Sturrock, June
"Women, Work and The Monthly Packet, 1851-73".
Nineteenth Century Feminisms 1 (1999). 51-73

Visit the Nineteenth Century Feminisms webpage to see an abstract of this article (third item down)

Sturrock, June
"The Literary Woman of the 1850s and Charlotte Mary Yonge's Dynevor Terrace"  in
Victorian Novelists and the "Woman Question" ed. Nicola Diane Thompson.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 116–134.

Sturrock, June
"Sovereigns, Stepmothers, and Clever Women: Emma in the 1860s."
Unpublished paper given at the 1999 conference of the Jane Austen Society of North America: "Emma: Jane Austen at Her Peak", Oct. 8-10, Colorado Springs, CO, USA

June Sturrock considers why two established English authors of the 1860s, Margaret Oliphant and Charlotte Mary Yonge, appropriated characters and situations from Austen.

Sturrock, June
Catholic Anti-heroines: Craik, Sewell and Yonge."
Women's Writing 11 1 (2004)
ISSN 0969-9082

Click here to read summary or full text of this article

Sturrock, June
"Establishing Identity: Editorial Correspondence from the Early Years of The Monthly Packet"
Victorian Periodicals Review - Volume 39, Number 3, Fall 2006, pp. 266-279
University of Toronto Press

"I wish anyone could tell us what the cost of starting a magazine would be," the novelist Charlotte Mary Yonge wrote to her friend Marianne Dyson in 1850. A few months later, in January 1851, the magazine she had in mind, The Monthly Packet, began publication, with the twenty-nine year old Yonge as editor, a position she was to hold for more than 40 years. The Monthly Packet was, as its first editorial proclaimed, primarily designed for a readership of "young girls, or maidens, or young ladies, whatever you like to be called." Its aims were frankly and unashamedly didactic: Above all it is the especial desire and prayer of those who address you through the pages of this Magazine that what you may find there may tend to make you more steadfast and dutiful daughters of our own beloved Catholic church in England, and may go alongside in all respects with the teaching, both doctrinal and practical, of the Prayer Book. For we live in a time of more than ordinary trial and our middle path seems to have grown narrower than ever. The full title of the periodical indicates this mission: The Monthly Packet ... "

Sturrock, June
Emma In The 1860s: Austen, Yonge, Oliphant, Eliot
Paper in the 2010 special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: In mid Victorian Britain, women novelists appropriated Emma (1816) as a narrative of women's frustrated and misdirected energies. Emma's health, vitality, and lack of an obvious outlet for her energy - her lack of "something to do" - spoke to a nagging anxiety of the period. These qualities, combined with her immature and overconfident misunderstanding of other people, provided the framework for a number of largely traditionalist critiques of the ongoing heated debate over women and work. The best-known fictional result of this debate is, of course, the slightly belated Middlemarch (1871-72). The lesser-known results discussed here - Charlotte Yonge's The Clever Woman of the Family (1865) and Margaret Oliphant's Miss Marjoribanks (1866) - are, apart from their own considerable intrinsic and historical interest, a significant part both of the reception history of Emma and of the context for Middlemarch. This article discusses The Clever Woman of the Family and Miss Marjoribanks (as well as, more briefly, Yonge's The Young Stepmother [1860]) and indicates their relevance to the two canonical novels.

Sullivan, Lucy
"A clash of cultures but not of values? The Problem of Mrs Charnock Poynsett in Charlotte M. Yonge's The Three Brides."
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 8 (2008), pp 3-9.

Szurko, Marjory M.
A survey of Charlotte M. Yonge collections in Oxford college libraries : an introduction and annotated bibliography
Dissertation (M. Res.) – University of London (1999)

Abstract : This survey was written as part of my submission for a Masters degree in Research while I was Librarian at Keble College, and it certainly opened my eyes to a new world. The study is intended to guide the reader through the various collections of Charlotte M Yonge material in Oxford college libraries, and to help give some idea of the life and work of this nineteenth-century authoress who even today inspires enthusiasm and affection in her readership.

The survey has a short introduction, where the historical scene is set, and then moves on to give a history and overview of the collections themselves. My findings showed that eleven of the Oxford colleges have one or more of Charlotte M Yonge's books given by various donors; four of the colleges (Lady Margaret Hall, St Hilda's, St Hugh's and Somerville) have copies of The Monthly Packet, and three (Keble, Lady Margaret Hall and Oriel) have correspondence written by or to Miss Yonge. The colleges covered in the survey are: All Souls, Balliol, Exeter, Keble, Lady Margaret Hall, Oriel, St Anne's, St Edmund Hall, St Hilda's, St Hugh's and Somerville.

The main section of the survey contains a full annotated bibliography of the collections, and this includes the date that the book was first published, the indexed title and title proper, the name of the college(s) where the title is held, an edition statement, place of publication, name of publisher, date of edition (where known), statement of format, pagination, note of illustration (if present), binding information and copy notes. Appendix A covers correspondence relating to the texts, and Appendix B shows chosen pictorial examples of interesting illustrative material and bindings appearing in the collections. The survey concludes with a short bibliography and an alphabetical index of titles.

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Tedesco, Laureen
“Death by Croquet: Disposing of the Unrepentant Girl in Charlotte Yonge's Family Stories”
Fifth Biennial Conference on Modern Critical Approaches to Children's Literature 2003
(no further details available)

Thompson, Nicola Diana
Reviewing Sex: Gender and the Reception of Victorian Novels
(New York: New York University Press 1996)
Cloth and Paperback; includes b&w illustrations.
ISBN 0814782116

The text below is from the publisher's website:

When Scenes of Clerical Life appeared anonymously in 1853 the Saturday Review pictured its author, George Eliot, as a bearded Cambridge clergyman and the revered father of several children. When Anthony Trollope published Nina Balatka and Linda Tressel anonymously in 1867, the London Review argued that the internal evidence required the author to be female.

Gender played a pivotal role in the reception of Victorian novels and was not only an analytical category used by Victorian reviewers to conceptualize, interpret, and evaluate novels, but in some cases was the primary category. This book analyzes over 100 nineteenth-century reviews of several prominent novels, both canonical and non-canonical, chosen for the various ways in which they conformed with and deviated from conventional gender stereotypes. Among these titles are Charles Reade's It Is Never Too Late to Mend, Emily Bront's Wuthering Heights, Anthony Trollope's Barchester Towers and Charlotte Yonge's The Heir of Redclyffe.

This study goes beyond the intuitive notion that a double standard existed in the Victorian era which undervalues the work of women writers. Male writers, such as Trollope, were in fact also vulnerable to the masculine/feminine hierarchies of Victorian literary criticism. Some women writers, on the other hand, actually benefitted from gendered evaluations. Charlotte Yonge, for instance, conformed so closely to the ideal and idealized view of feminine writing that she is chivalrously exempted from more critical examinations of intellectual content. Having unearthed often ignored or neglected sources, Thompson examines the ways in which Victorian constructions of literary reputations were filtered through preconceptions about gender and writing.

Thompson, Nicola Diana (ed.)
Victorian Women Writers and the Woman Question
Cambridge University Press, 1999
(ISBN 0-521-64102-0)

Contributors: Nicola Diane Thompson, Valerie Sanders, Anne Humpherys, Alison Chapman, Alexis Easley, Monica F. Cohen, June Sturrock, Lyn Pykett, Dennis Denisoff, Pamela K. Gilbert, Ann Ardis, Beth Sutton-Ramspeck, Amelia A. Rutledge, Annette R. Federico

This collection of essays focuses attention on a number of Victorian women writers popular in their own time but forgotten or neglected by literary history, from Margaret Oliphant and Charlotte Yonge to Mary Ward, Marie Corelli, 'Ouida' and E. Nesbit. Particular emphasis is given to writings concerned with 'the woman question'. Discussions of marriage, matriarchy and divorce, satire, suffragette writing, writing for children, and links between literature and art illuminate the complex cultural and literary roles, and the engaging contributions, of Victorian women writers.

Das Viktorianische Zeitalter war die "Hochzeit" für Weibliches Schreiben und Frauenliteratur. Trotzdem hat sich die Literaturwissenschaft des 20. Jahrhunderts nur mit einer kleinen Anzahl von bereits bekannten, rezipierten Autorinnen befasst. Diese Essays, von renommierten WissenschaftlerInnen (u.a. Valerie Sanders, Monica Cohen, Lyn Pykett, Beth Sutton-Rampsek), aus dem angloamerikanischen und kanadischen Raum, versuchen diese Lücke aufzuarbeiten: sie holen in ihrer Zeit erfolgreiche und bekannte Autorinnen aus der Vergessenheit, vor allem solche, die sich der Frauenfrage und Emanzipation gewidmet haben: Harriet Martineau, Charlotte Mary Yonge, Mary Ward, Marie Corelli.

Summary and chapter titles for this book are on the publisher's website.

You can read 13 sample pages from this book on the Amazon website.

Thompson, Nicola Diana
“Lost Horizons: Rereading and Reclaiming Victorian Women Writers.”
Women's Studies Volume 31, Number 1 (2002) 67–83.

The abstract below is from the publisher's website:

"The girls of today cannot see themselves in Miss Yonge and that is their chief demand from literature" – Edith Sichel, Monthly Review, May 1901 The depths to which the reputation of popular conservative Victorian novelist, Charlotte Yonge, had sunk by the end of the nineteenth century are reflected in Oscar Wilde's reaction to being told a condemned man was reading one of Yonge's novels: "My heart was turned by the eyes of the doomed man, but if he reads The Heir of Redclyffe it's perhaps as well to let the law take its course" (Ellman 202).

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Thorne-Murphy, Leslee
"A Woman and an Artist: Charlotte M. Yonge’s Aesthetic Theory in The Pillars of the House"
Paper given at the Eighth Annual Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century British Women Writers Conference 1999
(no further details available)

Thorne-Murphy, Leslee
"Charlotte Yonge's Aunt Charlotte Stories of Bible History in Transatlantic Context"
Paper given at the 13th Annual Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century British Women Writers Conference 2004
(no further details available)

Thorne-Murphy, Leslee
"Revising Authorship: Transatlantic Editions of Charlotte M. Yonge’s Aunt Charlotte’s Stories of Bible History"
Unpublished paper given at SHARP 2006, 'Trading Books - Trading Ideas', July 2006

Thorne-Murphy, Leslee
"Authorship and Authority: Transatlantic Editions of Charlotte M. Yonge's Aunt Charlotte's Stories of Bible History"
Unpublished paper given at 2007 British Women Writers Conference (University of Kentucky)

Thorne-Murphy, Leslee
"The Charity Bazaar and Women's Professionalization in Charlotte Mary Yonge's The Daisy Chain"
SEL Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 - Volume 47, Number 4, Autumn 2007, pp. 881-899

Extract from abstract: As an established author musing on the changes in women?s professionalization that had occurred during her lifetime, Charlotte Mary Yonge remarked that women's involvement in bazaars had changed the way her society thought about women earning money. By examining the depiction of a charity bazaar in The Daisy Chain, we see how she used the methods and logic of the charity bazaar to represent her own participation in the publishing marketplace. In 1877, as an established novelist, Charlotte Mary Yonge reflected on a change that had happened during the course of her career. As a child, she had understood that a lady did not accept payment for her work, yet just thirty years later, she observed, "everybody does want to make money." She mused, "I suppose the bazaar system first led to the change of tone." In typical understated fashion, Yonge pinpointed a seemingly minor element of Victorian life that, according to her observations, had fundamentally changed society's attitude toward women earning money: "the bazaar system."

Thorne-Murphy, Leslee
"Aunt Charlotte Visits the Wild West: a Publication History of Aunt Charlotte's Stories of Bible History" and
"Appendix: Publishers of Charlotte M Yonge's Stories of Bible History".
With ten colour illustrations. Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 9 (2009), pp 34-41 and 42-49.

Thorne-Murphy, Leslee
"The Charity Pig: Altruism and Self-deceit in Charlotte M. Yonge's The Stokesley Secret; or, How The Pig Paid The Rent."
In the 2010 special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: Charlotte M. Yonge devoted a significant portion of her money and time to charity work. However, she rarely depicted positive examples of philanthropy in her fiction. This article examines the charitable efforts of the Merrifield children in Yonge's novel The Stokesley Secret; or, How the Pig Paid the Rent (1861). By looking at this novel in the context of mid Victorian literature advocating children's charity work, we can explore Yonge's reasoning for portraying complex and problematic charity work.

Thorne-Murphy, Leslee
"Re-Authorship: Authoring, Editing, and Coauthoring the Transatlantic Publications of Charlotte M. Yonge’s Aunt Charlotte’s Stories of Bible History."
Book History: Volume Thirteen - 2010
E-ISSN: 1529-1499 Print ISSN: 1098-7371

In this article, Leslee Thorne-Murphy explores the concept of authorship as it relates to editing and coauthoring. She examines three editions of Charlotte M. Yonge’s Aunt Charlotte’s Stories of Bible History, noting how the volume changed from its original version published in London to two different American editions. By studying the volume’s various publication contexts alongside the editorial changes made in each edition, she finds that the portrayal of authorship implemented by Yonge and her unacknowledged editors accommodated a remarkable amount of literary borrowing, coauthoring, and editing. In essence, each edition “re-authored” its author.

Click here to read the full text of this article (Project MUSE)

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Tillotson, Geoffrey and Kathleen
Mid-Victorian studies
(London: Athlone Press, 1965)

Contents: The tale and the teller -- Novelists and near-novelists -- Harriett Mozley -- The Heir of Redclyffe --- Trollope's style -- The George Eliot letters I, II, III -- Tennyson's serial poem -- A word for Browning -- Clough's Bothie -- Clough : thought and action -- Matthew Arnold on our time -- 'Yes, in the sea of life' -- Rugby 1850 : Arnold, Clough, Walrond and In memoriam -- Arnold : the lecturer and journalist -- Swinburne -- Matthew Arnold and Carlyle -- Newman : the writer -- Newman : thought and action -- Newman in his letters -- Donne's poetry in the nineteenth century -- The Victorian frame of mind -- Writers and readers in 1851.

A short (seven-page) and very readable chapter by Kathleen Tillotson about The Heir of Redclyffe.


(Reference to Charlotte Yonge in) Times Literary Supplement, 1948
(unseen: please email us if you can supply more details at : email yonge.fellowship(at) - see also Hope Dodds, Madeleine, above)
"Charlotte Yonge and Jane Austen"
31 July 1948, p 429

Traver, Teresa Huffman
" 'I Have Not A Home:' Catholic Conversion And English Identity"
Unpublished dissertation, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
University of Notre Dame, July 2007

This thesis is available online: click here to view

... this dissertation explores novels by John Henry Newman, Margaret Oliphant, Charlotte Yonge, and Charlotte Brontë in the context of mid-century journal and newspaper articles, court cases, religious tracts and popular anti-Catholic fiction.

Traver, Teresa Huffman
"That is the ship": The Missionary Fiction of Charlotte Yonge.
Paper delivered at VISAWUS 12th Annual Conference
University of Colorado, Boulder, October 2007

Traver, Teresa Huffman
"The Ship That Bears Through The Waves"
in a special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: This article highlights the complicated relationships which Charlotte Yonge constructs between foreign mission, British imperial expansion, and England's own impoverished classes. The Daisy Chain (1856), which provides a clear example of the way the theme of missions might be taken up in conjunction with pro-empire sentiment, also suggests something of the complications which could ensue when the two rhetorics were united in one project.

This article traces out the way in which The Daisy Chain employs the traditional metaphor of the Christian Church as a ship riding the storms of life. Through the symbol of the ship, the novel constructs naval enterprises, missions, and the Tractarian project of church building as not merely analogous but mutually supporting, such that the "motion" of missionary outreach ultimately works both ways. Just as Anglicanism travels outward toward the colonies, so, in Yonge's understanding, colonial missionary endeavours reach back and shape English Christianity as well and, in so doing, shape English national identity.


Turner, Barbara Carpenter
Hampshire Hogs
(Illustrated booklet about St Swithun, Henry of Winchester, Simon the Draper, William of Wykeham, Peter Symonds, Robert Tompson, Isaac Watts, Jonas Hanway, Gilbert White and Charlotte Mary Yonge)
Paul Cave Publications, 1978

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Venables, Bronwyn V.
The education of Victorian girlhood: an analysis based on the novels of Charlotte M. Yonge
Unpublished thesis 1981 (B.A. (Hons.)) -- University of Sydney, 1981. Bibliography: p. 196-205.
(University of South Australia thesis record number TA438)

Vaughan-Pow, Catharine J.
A one-way ticket? emigration and the colonies in the works of Charlotte M. Yonge
in Imperial objects : Victorian women's emigration and the unauthorized imperial experience
edited by Rita S. Kranidis.
New York, London : 1998.
ISBN 0805716270

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Wagner, Tamara S.
‘If he belonged to me, I should not like it at all’:
Managing Disability and Dependencies in Charlotte Yonge’s The Two Guardians.”
Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies 4, no.2 (2008)

This article is available online – click here

Wagner, Tamara S.
“Depressed Spirits and Failed Crisis Management: Charlotte Yonge’s Sensationalisation of the Religious Family.”
Victorians Institute Journal 36 (2008)

Wagner, Tamara S.
“Stretching ‘The Sensational Sixties’: Genre and Sensationalism in Domestic Fiction by Victorian Women Writers.”
Victorian Review 35, no.1 (Spring 2009)

Wagner, Tamara S.
"Home Work: The Ambiguous Valorization of 'Affliction' in Charlotte Yonge’s The Pillars of the House"
In Victorian Review 35.2 (Fall 2009): Special Issue: Victorian Disability

Wagner, Tamara S.
“Transatlantic Sensationalism in Mid-Victorian Domestic Fiction: Exporting and Containing the Domestic in Charlotte Yonge’s The Trial.”
In Transatlantic Sensations.
Ed. Jennifer Phegley and John Barton,

Wagner, Tamara S.
"Novelist With A Reserved Mission: The Different Forms Of Charlotte Mary Yonge"
Introduction to a special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Wagner, Tamara S.
"Led astray to be newly framed: Redeeming sensational fraud in Charlotte Yonge's epistolary experiments"
In the 2010 special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: Charlotte Yonge's critical engagement with different narrative paradigms translates concerns with the potential as well as the problems of mass-market literature into intricate plots of wilful misrepresentation. Reminding us of the interchanges between, as much as of the sheer variety of, newly differentiated subgenres in the increasingly volatile literary marketplace of the time, Yonge's evocation of financial fraud in her domestic chronicles does more than simply illustrate her startling appropriation of fashionable formulas. Forged papers and fake identities externalize preoccupations with a narrative's internal cohesiveness, working out a self-consciously religious writer's authorial anxieties through intriguing metonymic projections. This essay juxtaposes the embedded epistolary narrative of The Clever Woman of the Family (1865) with the rewriting of the earlier novel's most sensational plot in her collaborative letter novel Astray: A Tale of a Country Town (1886).

Wagner, Tamara S.
"Detecting Business Fraud at home: White Collar Crime and Senstational Clergyman in Victorian Domestic Fiction".
Chapter 7 in Victorian Secrecy: Economies of knowledge and concealment
Pionke, Albert D., and Millstein, Denise Tischler (eds.)
Ashgate 2010, ISBN: 9780754668886

From a review by Stephen Arata in NBOL-19 (An Online Review of New Books on English and American Literature)
In a perceptive and wide-ranging essay, Wagner examines how realist novelists in the 1860s and ’70s “combine interest in the new narrative structures of secrecy and detection with a rejection of quickly typecast sensational formulae” (118-19). Her primary example is Charlotte Yonge’s The Clever Woman of the Family (1865), a novel brimful of fraud, deceit, and elaborate double-dealing which yet manages to exude an atmosphere of rectitude and moral sobriety. Where in sensation fiction the exposure of secrets is often an end in itself, in Yonge’s novel it becomes the occasion for redemptive suffering on the part of individuals and the restoration of “proper” (Wagner emphasizes the deep conservatism at work here) “domestic, social, and business relations” (133).

Wakefield, Sarah R.
"Charlotte Yonge's Victorian Normans in The Little Duke."
Beyond Arthurian Romances: The Reach of Victorian Medievalism.
Ed. Jennifer Palmgren and Lorretta Holloway.
Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

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Walton, Susan
"The Monthly Packet: Charlotte Yonge and literary apprenticeships"
Paper given at Women's Literary Networks: 1580 to the present day (conference)
University of London March 2008

Walton, Susan
"Charlotte M. Yonge and the 'historical harem' of Edward Augustus Freeman"
Journal of Victorian Culture,
Vol. 11.2, (2006), pp. 226-255

Although largely known for her fiction, Charlotte Yonge was also a prolific writer of history books. When E. A. Freeman as Editor of a series of textbooks needed an author for a History of France, the publisher Macmillan encouraged him to add Yonge to his “historic harem” of women writers. The fraught relationship which developed between Yonge and Freeman can be glimpsed in their correspondence and is revealed more blatantly in his letters to Macmillan's, to other male historians and to Edith Thompson, a younger and more biddable member of the “harem”. They expose the dynamics of how men such as Freeman conducted a campaign to create, define and police a new ‘manly’ academic discipline of History.

Click here to read pages 226-234 of this article (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Walton, Susan
' "‘The self-controlled vivacity of high spiritual existence’’: Charlotte M. Yonge’s manly father-figures’
Paper given at Shaping Belief: Culture, Politics, and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Writing (conference)
June 2005

When Kitty Moberly used these unusual words to describe Charlotte Yonge, Keble, and her father George Moberly, she wanted to encapsulate the vibrancy and excitement of their lives in and around Winchester, to counteract the notion that to be content with the ‘small’ affairs of the parish and community was evidence of a failure of nerve. An examination of Yonge’s real and fictional father-figures at mid-century reveals their conception of an organic society rooted in familial and communal ties and is evidence of a more active engagement with social issues than usually associated with Tractarians. Fundamental to their vision was the role of the father. Yonge provided suggestive versions of how to perform fatherhood both within families and the wider community, promulgating a pattern of energetic goodness based on the remarkable men within her own circle to counteract the withdrawn sterility of the Tractarian man as commonly portrayed. With the serialization of Henrietta's Wish (1849-50) in The Churchman’s Companion, she made her own subtle contribution to this debate. This can fruitfully be studied as a counterweight to Charles Kingsley’s Yeast (serialized in Fraser’s Magazine in 1848), his story about rural discontent and deprivation in which his hero trumpets Kingsley’s own brand of red-blooded Christianity compared to that of a lacklustre Tractarian cousin.

Walton, Susan
"Imagining Men: Charlotte M. Yonge and Mid-Victorian Masculinities"
(Ph. D. thesis 2006)

This thesis studies Yonge's writings as a route into the cultural concepts of masculinity at mid-century. The first two chapters are concerned with her close family connections with the Army. After a consideration of the gradual shift in attitudes to the military in wider society during the 1850s and the problem of fashioning brothers and sons into soldiers, Yonge's early enthusiasm for soldiering as reflected in Kenneth; or the Rearguard of the Grand Army (1850) is contrasted with the doubts apparent in The Young Stepmother (1861) set at the time of the Crimean War. Chapter Three explores notions of fatherhood both within the family and the community with studies of Henrietta's Wish (1850) and Hopes and Fears (1860). The next chapter examines Yonge's role in the promotion of mission work as a virile, attractive occupation for educated men, a perfect combination of valour without violence. Finally, an account of the difficulties of Yonge's relationship with the historian E. A. Freeman is given to illuminate the gendered assumptions interwoven into different categories of history-writing. This concludes with a brief assessment of The Little Duke (1854).

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Walton, Susan
‘Heartsease and the fallen writing desk of Emilia Wyndham’
Review of the Charlotte M. Yonge Fellowship, No. 26, Spring 2008

Walton, Susan
Imagining soldiers and fathers in the mid-Victorian era : Charlotte Yonge’s models of manliness
Ashgate, 2010, ISBN 978-0-7546-6959-2,
Spring 2010.

This book is also available as an eBook, ISBN 978-1-4094-0219-0

The following is an extract from the publisher's website

Beginning with the premise that women's perceptions of manliness are crucial to its construction, Susan Walton focuses on the life and writings of Charlotte Yonge as a prism for understanding the formulation of masculinities in the Victorian period. Yonge was a prolific writer whose bestselling fiction and extensive journalism enjoyed a wide readership. Walton situates Yonge's work in the context of her family connections with the army, showing that an interlocking of worldly and spiritual warfare was fundamental to Yonge's outlook. For Yonge, all good Christians are soldiers, and Walton argues persuasively that the medievalised discourse of sanctified violence executed by upright moral men that is often connected with late nineteenth-century Imperialism began earlier in the century, and that Yonge's work was one major strand that gave it substance. Of significance, Yonge also endorsed missionary work, which she viewed as an extension of a father's duties in the neighborhood and which was closely allied to a vigorous promotion of refashioned Tory paternalism. Walton's study is rich in historical context, including Yonge's connections with the Tractarians, the effects of industrialization, and Britain's Imperial enterprises. Informed by extensive archival scholarship, Walton offers important insights into the contradictory messages about manhood current in the mid-nineteenth century through the works of a major but undervalued Victorian author.

Introduction: 'Make us thine own soldiers true'; Happy warriors? Military matters in the 1850s; Shaping brothers and sons into soldiers I; Shaping brothers and sons into soldiers II; The fatherland of parish and community; The fatherlands of Henrietta's Wish and Hopes and Fears; Missionary men as Christian knights; The heirs of The Heir of Redclyffe in the South Pacific; Charlotte Yonge's historical heroes; Bibliography; Index.

About the Author:
Susan Walton studied History at St Andrews University; after some years as a History teacher, she gained an Interdisciplinary MA at York University and then a Ph.D in English from the University of Hull, where she is now an Honorary Research Associate in Victorian Studies.

Walton, Susan
“The eventful and significant life of Charlotte Yonge”
Paper given at Celebrating Women’s Writing Conference
Lucy Cavendish College, University of Cambridge, 19 June 2010

Walton, Susan
"Charlotte Yonge: Marketing the Missionary Story",
In Women’s Writing, 17.3 (2010)
(Special Issue devoted to Charlotte Yonge)

Publisher's abstract: Supporters of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG)-the missionary organization of the Church of England-needed both finance and recruits, but scorned the populist methods of the Dissenting societies. Charlotte Yonge's endorsement through her many writings, both fictional and factual, would play a pivotal role from the 1850s in raising the profile of the SPG. She successfully marketed the missionary story for a more middle-class, educated audience. Her long editorship of the Monthly Packet (1851-94), together with her access to Bishop Patteson's correspondence, made her the perfect channel for filtering missionary news, especially about New Zealand and Melanesia, to a wider audience. Through novels such as The Daisy Chain (1856) and The Trial (1864), she percolated information and encouraged positive attitudes about overseas missions, even into the homes of those who did not subscribe to missionary periodicals. Of special importance was her promotion of a vigorous, well-educated model of missionary, an archetype she wanted her readers to emulate, support and construct within strong family networks

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Walton, Susan
"Nineteenth-century consciousness-raising: how Charlotte Yonge's Monthly Packet formed and informed the minds of middle-class women at home"
British Association for Victorian Studies Conference, University of Glasgow, September 2 - 4, 2010

Walton, Susan
"‘I am but a stranger everywhere’: Missionary Themes in Charlotte Yonge’s New Ground and My Young Alcides"
in Victorian Settler Narratives: Emigrants, Cosmopolitans and Returnees in Nineteenth-Century Literature
ed. Tamara S Wagner (2020)


Wells-Cole, Catherine
"Angry Yonge men: anger and masculinity in the novels of Charlotte M. Yonge"
Masculinity and spirituality in Victorian culture
edited by Andrew Bradstock, Sean Gill, Anne Hogan, Sue Morgan
Macmillan (2000)

Publisher's website information for this book
(includes PDF file of the book's Contents list, Index and Introduction)

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Webb, William
“A Charlotte Yonge Story Identified.”
Notes and Queries, Volume 31, Number 1 (2002) 67–83

Wheatley, Kim
"Death and Domestication in Charlotte M Yonge's The Clever Woman of the Family."
Studies in English Literature 1500–1900  36 (1996) 895–915.

Wiacek, Elma Jean
The role of Charlotte Mary Yonge in the development of historical fiction for the young adult
DIssertation, Library Science
Southern Connecticut State University, 1971, 206 pages.

Available through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses - click here for details

     You can read download and read the first few pages of this dissertation — click this line.

Woodcock, Lloyd
Charlotte Yonge and Otterbourne School,1872-1901
Eastleigh and District Local History Society, 1987
Paperback, Series Special Paper No.17. (8 pages)
(Top of first page: 'Charlotte Yonge and Otterbourne Girls' and Infants' School, 1872-1901')
ISBN X101897766

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Zakreski, Patricia
"Piece Work: Mosaic, Feminine Influence and Charlotte Yonge's Beechcroft at Rockstone"
Studies in the Literary Imagination 43.1 (2010), Vol. 43 Issue 1, p 69

This paper forms a discrete project in a longer-term scheme of research into the women’s work as designers for the art-industries and as artisans in the built environment.

It considers mosaic work as a form of female labor, taking the figure of mosaicist Kalliope White in the novel "Beechcroft at Rockstone," by Charlotte Yonge. The paper notes that the ability of White to influence the young women employed under her is a direct reflection of the concept of feminine influence that described the domestic ideal. It details the scope and impact of discourses concerning this work from the 1860s to the 1880s. It examines the way in which the novelist draws upon mosaic's unique status among the British art-industries.

This section contains references to works on Heroism and Masculinity

Brendon, Piers 
Hurrell Froude and the Oxford Movement

(London: Elek, 1974)

Froude, Richard Hurrell
Remains of the late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude, M.A. Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford

(ed. J.H. Newman and J. Keble). 
(London and Derby: Rivington, 1838-9)

Gay, Peter
‘The manliness of Christ’, in Religion and irreligion in Victorian society. 
Essays in honour of R.K. Webb
(ed. R.W. Davis and R.J. Helmstadter)
(London: Routledge, 1992)

Girouard, Mark.
The return to Camelot. Chivalry and the English gentleman
(New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1981)

Jay, Elisabeth
The religion of the heart. Anglican Evangelicalism and the nineteenth-century novel.
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979)

Jenkyns, Richard
The Victorians and ancient Greece.
(Oxford: Blackwell, 1980)

Vance, Norman
The sinews of the spirit. The ideal of Christian manliness in Victorian literature and religious thought.
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985)

Worth, George
‘Of muscles and manliness: some reflections on Thomas Hughes’, in 
Victorian literature and society. Essays presented to Richard D. Attick

(ed. J.R. Kincaid and A.J. Kahn)
(Ohio State University Press, 1984)

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This section records some early Yonge-related material discovered using Google Book Search.

"Miss Sewell and Miss Yonge"
article in The Dublin Review vol XLV 1858 313-328 (facsimile available through Google)

"Miss Yonge"
short article by J Cordy Jeaffreson in Novels and Novelists from Elizabeth to Victoria
London 1858 (facsimile available through Google)

(Short section in) Nineteenth-Century Religious Thought in the West
Ed: Ninian Smart, John Clayton, Patrick Sherry, Steven T. Katz
Cambridge University Press
(facsimile pages available through Google)

"Murder, Gender and Popular Fiction by Women in the 1860s:Braddon, Oliphant, Yonge"
chapter in Victorian Crime, Madness and Sensation by Andrew Maunder, Grace Moore
ISBN: 0754640604
Aldershot, England (2004)
(facsimile pages available through Google)

(Short section in) National Dreams: The Remaking of Fairy Tales in Nineteenth-Century England
Jennifer Schacker (2003)
ISBN: 0812236971
University of Pennsylvania Press (2003)
(facsimile pages available through Google)


Devoted Sisters: Representations of the Sister Relationship in Nineteenth-Century British and.American Literature
Sarah Annes Brown
ISBN: 0754604780
Aldershot, England (2003)
(facsimile pages available through Google)

(Section in) The Victorians
Philip Davis
ISBN: 0198184476
Oxford University Press 2002

(Discussion of Unknown to History in)
Ancestry and Narrative in Nineteenth-Century British Literature
Sophie Gilmartin
ISBN: 0521560942
Cambridge University Press

(mentions of Yonge as editor of the Sunday Library for Household Reading in)
Victorian Publishing: The Economics of Book Production for a Mass Market, 1836-1916
Alexis Weedon
ISBN: 0754635279
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2003


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